skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Bandgap profiling in CIGS solar cells via valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy

Abstract

A robust, reproducible method for the extraction of relative bandgap trends from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is described. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by profiling the bandgap through a CuIn 1-xGa xSe 2 solar cell that possesses intentional Ga/(In + Ga) composition variation. The EELS-determined bandgap profile is compared to the nominal profile calculated from compositional data collected via STEM-based energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The EELS based profile is found to closely track the calculated bandgap trends, with only a small, fixed offset difference. This approach, which is particularly advantageous for relatively narrow bandgap materials and/or STEM systems with modest resolution capabilities (i.e., >100 meV), compromises absolute accuracy to provide a straightforward route for the correlation of local electronic structure trends with nanoscale chemical and physical structure/microstructure within semiconductor materials and devices.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
  3. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, and Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1540143
Grant/Contract Number:  
EE0007141
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 11; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; Physics

Citation Formats

Deitz, Julia I., Karki, Shankar, Marsillac, Sylvain X., Grassman, Tyler J., and McComb, David W. Bandgap profiling in CIGS solar cells via valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1063/1.5011658.
Deitz, Julia I., Karki, Shankar, Marsillac, Sylvain X., Grassman, Tyler J., & McComb, David W. Bandgap profiling in CIGS solar cells via valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.5011658.
Deitz, Julia I., Karki, Shankar, Marsillac, Sylvain X., Grassman, Tyler J., and McComb, David W. Wed . "Bandgap profiling in CIGS solar cells via valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.5011658. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1540143.
@article{osti_1540143,
title = {Bandgap profiling in CIGS solar cells via valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy},
author = {Deitz, Julia I. and Karki, Shankar and Marsillac, Sylvain X. and Grassman, Tyler J. and McComb, David W.},
abstractNote = {A robust, reproducible method for the extraction of relative bandgap trends from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is described. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by profiling the bandgap through a CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cell that possesses intentional Ga/(In + Ga) composition variation. The EELS-determined bandgap profile is compared to the nominal profile calculated from compositional data collected via STEM-based energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The EELS based profile is found to closely track the calculated bandgap trends, with only a small, fixed offset difference. This approach, which is particularly advantageous for relatively narrow bandgap materials and/or STEM systems with modest resolution capabilities (i.e., >100 meV), compromises absolute accuracy to provide a straightforward route for the correlation of local electronic structure trends with nanoscale chemical and physical structure/microstructure within semiconductor materials and devices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.5011658},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Graded band‐gap Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin‐film solar cell absorber with enhanced open‐circuit voltage
journal, September 1993

  • Contreras, Miguel; Tuttle, John; Du, Dahong
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 63, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.110675

Electron energy-loss spectroscopy in the TEM
journal, December 2008


Gallium gradients in Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 thin-film solar cells : Gallium gradients in CIGS thin-film solar cells
journal, March 2014

  • Witte, Wolfram; Abou-Ras, Daniel; Albe, Karsten
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 23, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2485

Nanoscale insight into the p-n junction of alkali-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells : P-N junction of alkali-incorporated Cu(In,Ga)Se
journal, April 2017

  • Stokes, Adam; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Norman, Andrew
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 25, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2883

Band-gap measurements of direct and indirect semiconductors using monochromated electrons
journal, May 2007


Nanoscale mapping of optical band gaps using monochromated electron energy loss spectroscopy
journal, February 2017


Band‐gap engineering in CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 solar cells
journal, June 1996

  • Topič, Marko; Smole, Franc; Furlan, Jože
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 79, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.362533

Copper Indium Selenides and Related Materials for Photovoltaic Devices
journal, April 2002

  • Stanbery, Billy J.
  • Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, Vol. 27, Issue 2, p. 73-117
  • DOI: 10.1080/20014091104215

Band gap widening at random CIGS grain boundary detected by valence electron energy loss spectroscopy
journal, October 2016

  • Keller, Debora; Buecheler, Stephan; Reinhard, Patrick
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 109, Issue 15
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4964516

Valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy in monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy
journal, October 2005


Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope
journal, October 2014

  • Krivanek, Ondrej L.; Lovejoy, Tracy C.; Dellby, Niklas
  • Nature, Vol. 514, Issue 7521
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature13870

Local Band Gap Measurements by VEELS of Thin Film Solar Cells
journal, April 2014

  • Keller, Debora; Buecheler, Stephan; Reinhard, Patrick
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 20, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927614000543

Accessing High Spatial Resolution Low-Loss EELS Information without Cerenkov Radiation
journal, July 2016

  • Deitz, Julia I.; Grassman, Tyler J.; McComb, David W.
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis, Vol. 22, Issue S3
  • DOI: 10.1017/S1431927616005729

Treating retardation effects in valence EELS spectra for Kramers–Kronig analysis
journal, April 2008


Surface and bulk properties of CuGaSe2 thin films
journal, September 2003


Surface-layer band gap widening in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films
journal, December 2003

  • Romero, M. J.; Jones, K. M.; AbuShama, J.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 83, Issue 23
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1631396

Direct and indirect transitions in the region of the band gap using electron-energy-loss spectroscopy
journal, October 1998


Optical properties and bandgaps from low loss EELS: Pitfalls and solutions
journal, December 2008


Band gap engineering of tandem structured CIGS compound absorption layer fabricated by sputtering and selenization
journal, June 2013


Čerenkov losses: A limit for bandgap determination and Kramers–Kronig analysis
journal, July 2006


Optical Monitoring and Control of Three-Stage Coevaporated Cu(In $_{\bm {1-x}}$Ga$_{\bm x}$)Se $_{\bf 2}$ by Real-Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
journal, January 2013


Fundamentals of electron energy-loss spectroscopy
journal, February 2016


Optimized FIB Sample Preparation for Atomic Resolution Analytical STEM at Low kV - A Key Requirement for Successful Application
journal, July 2011


Zero loss peak deconvolution for bandgap EEL spectra
journal, January 2000


Surface Modification of Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 Thin Films During Aqueous Oxidation Etch
journal, January 1997


Characterization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) films with varying gallium ratios
journal, February 2016


Investigation of local chemical and electronic properties of small particles with EELS point analysis and image energy filtering in a STEM
journal, March 1989

  • Ugarte, D.; Colliex, C.
  • Zeitschrift f�r Physik D Atoms, Molecules and Clusters, Vol. 12, Issue 1-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/BF01426967

Materials science applications of HREELS in near edge structure analysis and low-energy loss spectroscopy
journal, September 2003


Characterization of the Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo interface in CIGS solar cells
journal, May 2001


Sub-ångstrom resolution using aberration corrected electron optics
journal, August 2002

  • Batson, P. E.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.
  • Nature, Vol. 418, Issue 6898
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature00972

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Manipulating acoustic and plasmonic modes in gold nanostars
    journal, January 2019

    • Chatterjee, Sharmistha; Ricciardi, Loredana; Deitz, Julia I.
    • Nanoscale Advances, Vol. 1, Issue 7
    • DOI: 10.1039/c9na00301k