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Title: Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two

Abstract

In this article, we present observations of DES16C2nm, the first spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at redshift $$z\approx 2$$. DES16C2nm was discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova Program, with follow-up photometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope supplementing the DES data. Spectroscopic observations confirm DES16C2nm to be at z = 1.998, and spectroscopically similar to Gaia16apd (a SLSN-I at z = 0.102), with a peak absolute magnitude of $$U=-22.26\pm 0.06$$. The high redshift of DES16C2nm provides a unique opportunity to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of SLSNe-I. Combining DES16C2nm with 10 similar events from the literature, we show that there exists a homogeneous class of SLSNe-I in the UV ($${\lambda }_{\mathrm{rest}}\approx 2500$$ Å), with peak luminosities in the (rest-frame) U band, and increasing absorption to shorter wavelengths. There is no evidence that the mean photometric and spectroscopic properties of SLSNe-I differ between low ($$z\lt 1$$) and high redshift ($$z\gt 1$$), but there is clear evidence of diversity in the spectrum at $${\lambda }_{\mathrm{rest}}\lt 2000\,\mathring{\rm A} $$, possibly caused by the variations in temperature between events. No significant correlations are observed between spectral line velocities and photometric luminosity. Using these data, we estimate that SLSNe-I can be discovered to z = 3.8 by DES. While SLSNe-I are typically identified from their blue observed colors at low redshift ($$z\lt 1$$), we highlight that at $$z\gt 2$$ these events appear optically red, peaking in the observer-frame z-band. Such characteristics are critical to identify these objects with future facilities such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope, which should detect such SLSNe-I to z = 3.5, 3.7, and 6.6, respectively.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21); European Union (EU); National Science Foundation (NSF); TABASGO Foundation; National Research Council (NRC); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); Christopher R. Redlich Fund; Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley); Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; David and Lucile Packard Foundation; USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
The DES Collaboration; DES
OSTI Identifier:
1422471
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418144; OSTI ID: 1432248; OSTI ID: 1595618
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1712.04535; FERMILAB-PUB-17-380-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; TRN: US1801605
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; 615929; ST/N000688/1; AST-1311862; NNX15AR41G; AST-1518052; NAS 5-26555; AC02-05CH11231; AST-1138766; AST-1536171; AYA2015-71825; ESP2015-66861; FPA2015-68048; SEV-2016-0588; SEV-2016-0597; MDM-2015-0509; 240672; 291329; 306478; AC02-07CH11359; SC0009924
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 854; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; distance scale; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (DES16C2nm); surveys

Citation Formats

Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., and Walker, A. R. Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126.
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., & Walker, A. R. Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126.
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., and Walker, A. R. Thu . "Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1422471.
@article{osti_1422471,
title = {Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two},
author = {Smith, M. and Sullivan, M. and Nichol, R. C. and Galbany, L. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Inserra, C. and Lidman, C. and Rest, A. and Schirmer, M. and Filippenko, A. V. and Zheng, W. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Angus, C. R. and Brown, P. J. and Davis, T. M. and Finley, D. A. and Foley, R. J. and González-Gaitán, S. and Gutiérrez, C. P. and Kessler, R. and Kuhlmann, S. and Marriner, J. and Möller, A. and Nugent, P. E. and Prajs, S. and Thomas, R. and Wolf, R. and Zenteno, A. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Crocce, M. and Cunha, C. E. and Costa, L. N. da and Davis, C. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Petravick, D. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sako, M. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {In this article, we present observations of DES16C2nm, the first spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at redshift $z\approx 2$. DES16C2nm was discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova Program, with follow-up photometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope supplementing the DES data. Spectroscopic observations confirm DES16C2nm to be at z = 1.998, and spectroscopically similar to Gaia16apd (a SLSN-I at z = 0.102), with a peak absolute magnitude of $U=-22.26\pm 0.06$. The high redshift of DES16C2nm provides a unique opportunity to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of SLSNe-I. Combining DES16C2nm with 10 similar events from the literature, we show that there exists a homogeneous class of SLSNe-I in the UV (${\lambda }_{\mathrm{rest}}\approx 2500$ Å), with peak luminosities in the (rest-frame) U band, and increasing absorption to shorter wavelengths. There is no evidence that the mean photometric and spectroscopic properties of SLSNe-I differ between low ($z\lt 1$) and high redshift ($z\gt 1$), but there is clear evidence of diversity in the spectrum at ${\lambda }_{\mathrm{rest}}\lt 2000\,\mathring{\rm A} $, possibly caused by the variations in temperature between events. No significant correlations are observed between spectral line velocities and photometric luminosity. Using these data, we estimate that SLSNe-I can be discovered to z = 3.8 by DES. While SLSNe-I are typically identified from their blue observed colors at low redshift ($z\lt 1$), we highlight that at $z\gt 2$ these events appear optically red, peaking in the observer-frame z-band. Such characteristics are critical to identify these objects with future facilities such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope, which should detect such SLSNe-I to z = 3.5, 3.7, and 6.6, respectively.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 854,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: The photometric data of DES16C2nm from DES (filled circles), SUDSS g band (open circle), Gemini/Flamingoes-2 (stars), HST (black filled circle), VLT/FORS2 and VLT/HAWKI (crosses). The DES data have been averaged with a 14-day window for clarity. upper limits are shown as downward arrows, and the various epochsmore » of spectroscopy are shown as black upward arrows. The best-fit magnetar model evaluated at z= 1.9982 (Section 3.2) is shown as dashed lines, with the model of Piro (2015) at early times (Section 3.3) plotted as dash-dotted lines. The colors correspond to different passbands. The phases presented are relative to peak luminosity in the observer-frame DES $i$ band (MJD = 57639) as highlighted by a black dot-dashed line.« less

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