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Title: Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two

Abstract

We present observations of DES16C2nm, the first spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at redshift z ≈ 2. DES16C2nm was discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova Program, with follow-up photometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope supplementing the DES data. Spectroscopic observations confirm DES16C2nm to be at z = 1.998, and spectroscopically similar to Gaia16apd (a SLSN-I at z = 0.102), with a peak absolute magnitude of U = -22.26 ± 0.06. The high redshift of DES16C2nm provides a unique opportunity to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of SLSNe-I. Combining DES16C2nm with 10 similar events from the literature, we show that there exists a homogeneous class of SLSNe-I in the UV (λ rest ≈ 2500 Å), with peak luminosities in the (rest-frame) U band, and increasing absorption to shorter wavelengths. There is no evidence that the mean photometric and spectroscopic properties of SLSNe-I differ between low (z < 1) and high redshift (z > 1), but there is clear evidence of diversity in the spectrum at λ rest < 2000 Å, possibly caused by the variations in temperature between events. No significant correlations are observed between spectral line velocitiesmore » and photometric luminosity. Using these data, we estimate that SLSNe-I can be discovered to z = 3.8 by DES. While SLSNe-I are typically identified from their blue observed colors at low redshift (z < 1), we highlight that at z > 2 these events appear optically red, peaking in the observer-frame z-band. Such characteristics are critical to identify these objects with future facilities such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope, which should detect such SLSNe-I to z = 3.5, 3.7, and 6.6, respectively.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); European Union (EU); National Science Foundation (NSF); TABASGO Foundation; National Research Council (NRC); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); Christopher R. Redlich Fund; Miller Institute for Basic Research in Science (U.C. Berkeley); Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation; Alfred P. Sloan Foundation; David and Lucile Packard Foundation; USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP)
Contributing Org.:
The DES Collaboration; DES
OSTI Identifier:
1422471
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418144; OSTI ID: 1432248; OSTI ID: 1595618
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1712.04535; FERMILAB-PUB-17-380-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; TRN: US1801605
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; 615929; ST/N000688/1; AST-1311862; NNX15AR41G; AST-1518052; NAS 5-26555; AC02-05CH11231; AST-1138766; AST-1536171; AYA2015-71825; ESP2015-66861; FPA2015-68048; SEV-2016-0588; SEV-2016-0597; MDM-2015-0509; 240672; 291329; 306478; AC02-07CH11359; SC0009924
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 854; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; distance scale; supernovae: general; supernovae: individual (DES16C2nm); surveys

Citation Formats

Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., and Walker, A. R. Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126.
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., & Walker, A. R. Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two. United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., D’Andrea, C. B., Inserra, C., Lidman, C., Rest, A., Schirmer, M., Filippenko, A. V., Zheng, W., Cenko, S. Bradley, Angus, C. R., Brown, P. J., Davis, T. M., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., González-Gaitán, S., Gutiérrez, C. P., Kessler, R., Kuhlmann, S., Marriner, J., Möller, A., Nugent, P. E., Prajs, S., Thomas, R., Wolf, R., Zenteno, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Allam, S., Annis, J., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Johnson, M. W. G., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Li, T. S., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Rykoff, E. S., Sako, M., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., and Walker, A. R. Thu . "Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two". United States. https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1422471.
@article{osti_1422471,
title = {Studying the Ultraviolet Spectrum of the First Spectroscopically Confirmed Supernova at Redshift Two},
author = {Smith, M. and Sullivan, M. and Nichol, R. C. and Galbany, L. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Inserra, C. and Lidman, C. and Rest, A. and Schirmer, M. and Filippenko, A. V. and Zheng, W. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Angus, C. R. and Brown, P. J. and Davis, T. M. and Finley, D. A. and Foley, R. J. and González-Gaitán, S. and Gutiérrez, C. P. and Kessler, R. and Kuhlmann, S. and Marriner, J. and Möller, A. and Nugent, P. E. and Prajs, S. and Thomas, R. and Wolf, R. and Zenteno, A. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Crocce, M. and Cunha, C. E. and Costa, L. N. da and Davis, C. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Li, T. S. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Petravick, D. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sako, M. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Walker, A. R.},
abstractNote = {We present observations of DES16C2nm, the first spectroscopically confirmed hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN-I) at redshift z ≈ 2. DES16C2nm was discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Supernova Program, with follow-up photometric data from the Hubble Space Telescope, Gemini, and the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope supplementing the DES data. Spectroscopic observations confirm DES16C2nm to be at z = 1.998, and spectroscopically similar to Gaia16apd (a SLSN-I at z = 0.102), with a peak absolute magnitude of U = -22.26 ± 0.06. The high redshift of DES16C2nm provides a unique opportunity to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of SLSNe-I. Combining DES16C2nm with 10 similar events from the literature, we show that there exists a homogeneous class of SLSNe-I in the UV (λ rest ≈ 2500 Å), with peak luminosities in the (rest-frame) U band, and increasing absorption to shorter wavelengths. There is no evidence that the mean photometric and spectroscopic properties of SLSNe-I differ between low (z < 1) and high redshift (z > 1), but there is clear evidence of diversity in the spectrum at λ rest < 2000 Å, possibly caused by the variations in temperature between events. No significant correlations are observed between spectral line velocities and photometric luminosity. Using these data, we estimate that SLSNe-I can be discovered to z = 3.8 by DES. While SLSNe-I are typically identified from their blue observed colors at low redshift (z < 1), we highlight that at z > 2 these events appear optically red, peaking in the observer-frame z-band. Such characteristics are critical to identify these objects with future facilities such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Telescope, which should detect such SLSNe-I to z = 3.5, 3.7, and 6.6, respectively.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaa126},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 854,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: The photometric data of DES16C2nm from DES (filled circles), SUDSS g band (open circle), Gemini/Flamingoes-2 (stars), HST (black filled circle), VLT/FORS2 and VLT/HAWKI (crosses). The DES data have been averaged with a 14-day window for clarity. upper limits are shown as downward arrows, and the various epochsmore » of spectroscopy are shown as black upward arrows. The best-fit magnetar model evaluated at z= 1.9982 (Section 3.2) is shown as dashed lines, with the model of Piro (2015) at early times (Section 3.3) plotted as dash-dotted lines. The colors correspond to different passbands. The phases presented are relative to peak luminosity in the observer-frame DES $i$ band (MJD = 57639) as highlighted by a black dot-dashed line.« less

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DES14X3taz: A TYPE I SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SHOWING A LUMINOUS, RAPIDLY COOLING INITIAL PRE-PEAK BUMP
journal, February 2016


DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUAL OPTICAL TRANSIENT WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
journal, December 2008


DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey
journal, March 2015

  • Papadopoulos, A.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 449, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stv174

A Hubble Space Telescope survey of the host galaxies of Superluminous Supernovae
journal, March 2016

  • Angus, C. R.; Levan, A. J.; Perley, D. A.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 458, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw063

DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUAL OPTICAL TRANSIENT WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE
journal, December 2008


Ultraluminous Supernovae as a new Probe of the Interstellar Medium in Distant Galaxies
journal, August 2012


Supernova Simulations and Strategies for the dark Energy Survey
journal, June 2012


The Unusual Super-Luminous Supernovae sn 2011kl and Asassn-15lh
journal, January 2016

  • Bersten, Melina C.; Benvenuto, Omar G.; Orellana, Mariana
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 817, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8205/817/1/L8

Modeling the Light Curve of the Transient Scp06f6
journal, September 2009


Generalized Semi-Analytical Models of Supernova Light Curves
journal, January 2012


ANALYTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODELS OF SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE: χ 2 -MINIMIZATION OF PARAMETER FITS
journal, July 2013


Shock Breakout in Dense mass Loss: Luminous Supernovae
journal, February 2011


Pan-STARRS1 DISCOVERY OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AT z ≈ 0.9
journal, November 2011


Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion
journal, July 2013


Two Superluminous Supernovae from the Early Universe Discovered by the Supernova Legacy Survey
journal, November 2013


Superluminous Supernovae as Standardizable Candles and High-Redshift Distance Probes
journal, November 2014


SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL
journal, June 2013


THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST DISTANT KNOWN TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.914
journal, April 2013


Supernova Light Curves Powered by Young Magnetars
journal, June 2010


Pair Instability Supernovae: Light Curves, Spectra, and Shock Breakout
journal, June 2011


Hydrogen-Poor Superluminous Supernovae and Long-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts have Similar host Galaxies
journal, May 2014


The Extreme Hosts of Extreme Supernovae
journal, December 2010


SN 2015bn: A DETAILED MULTI-WAVELENGTH VIEW OF A NEARBY SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA
journal, July 2016


LSQ14bdq: A TYPE Ic SUPER-LUMINOUS SUPERNOVA WITH A DOUBLE-PEAKED LIGHT CURVE
journal, July 2015


Supernova ptf 09uj: a Possible Shock Breakout from a Dense Circumstellar wind
journal, November 2010


Host-Galaxy Properties of 32 Low-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Palomar Transient Factory
journal, October 2016


Using Double-Peaked Supernova Light Curves to Study Extended Material
journal, August 2015


A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA AT REDSHIFT 1.55 IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE INFRARED OBSERVATIONS FROM CANDELS
journal, January 2012

  • Rodney, Steven A.; Riess, Adam G.; Dahlen, Tomas
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 746, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/5

DES14X3taz: A TYPE I SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA SHOWING A LUMINOUS, RAPIDLY COOLING INITIAL PRE-PEAK BUMP
journal, February 2016


THE HYDROGEN-POOR SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA iPTF 13ajg AND ITS HOST GALAXY IN ABSORPTION AND EMISSION
journal, November 2014

  • Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Savaglio, Sandra; Gal-Yam, Avishay
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 797, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/797/1/24

Bright Supernovae from Magnetar Birth
journal, August 2010


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Models and Simulations for the Photometric LSST Astronomical Time Series Classification Challenge (PLAsTiCC)
    journal, July 2019

    • Kessler, R.; Narayan, G.; Avelino, A.
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 131, Issue 1003
    • DOI: 10.1088/1538-3873/ab26f1

    Superluminous Supernovae
    journal, March 2018

    • Moriya, Takashi J.; Sorokina, Elena I.; Chevalier, Roger A.
    • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 214, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-018-0493-6

    Three-dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulations of Supernova Ejecta with a Central Energy Source
    journal, August 2019


    Observational properties of extreme supernovae
    journal, August 2019


    A nearby super-luminous supernova with a long pre-maximum & “plateau” and strong C II features
    journal, November 2018


    First Release of High-redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Subaru HIgh-Z SUpernova CAmpaign (SHIZUCA). II. Spectroscopic Properties
    journal, March 2019

    • Curtin, Chris; Cooke, Jeff; Moriya, Takashi J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 241, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab07c8

    First Release of High-Redshift Superluminous Supernovae from the Subaru HIgh- Z SUpernova CAmpaign (SHIZUCA). I. Photometric Properties
    journal, March 2019

    • Moriya, Takashi J.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yasuda, Naoki
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 241, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab07c5

    Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey
    journal, May 2019

    • Angus, C. R.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1321

    A Statistical Approach to Identify Superluminous Supernovae and Probe Their Diversity
    journal, February 2018