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Title: First cosmology results using type Ia supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: the effect of host galaxy properties on supernova luminosity

Abstract

We present improved photometric measurements for the host galaxies of 206 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN) and used in the first DES-SN cosmological analysis. For the DES-SN sample, when considering a 5D (z, x1, c, α, β) bias correction, we find evidence of a Hubble residual ‘mass step’, where SNe Ia in high-mass galaxies (>1010M) are intrinsically more luminous (after correction) than their low-mass counterparts by $$\gamma =0.040\pm 0.019$$ mag. This value is larger by 0.031 mag than the value found in the first DES-SN cosmological analysis. This difference is due to a combination of updated photometric measurements and improved star formation histories and is not from host-galaxy misidentification. When using a 1D (redshift-only) bias correction the inferred mass step is larger, with $$\gamma =0.066\pm 0.020$$ mag. The 1D-5D γ difference for DES-SN is $$0.026\pm 0.009$$ mag. We show that this difference is due to a strong correlation between host galaxy stellar mass and the x1 component of the 5D distance-bias correction. Including an intrinsic correlation between the observed properties of SNe Ia, stretch and colour, and stellar mass in simulated SN Ia samples, we show that a 5D fit recovers γ with -9 mmag bias compared to a +2 mmag bias for a 1D fit. This difference can explain part of the discrepancy seen in the data. Improvements in modelling correlations between galaxy properties and SN are necessary to ensure unbiased precision estimates of the dark energy equation of state as we enter the era of LSST.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [10]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [13];  [8];  [14] more »; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [1];  [4];  [8];  [10];  [16]; ORCiD logo [8];  [17]; ORCiD logo [18];  [16];  [19];  [20];  [21]; ORCiD logo [22];  [23];  [24];  [25]; ORCiD logo [21];  [26]; ORCiD logo [27]; ORCiD logo [28];  [29];  [30];  [31];  [32];  [21];  [25];  [33];  [7];  [21];  [34];  [15];  [22]; ORCiD logo [34];  [35]; ORCiD logo [36];  [28];  [30]; ORCiD logo [21];  [37];  [7];  [38];  [39];  [40];  [41];  [21];  [20]; ORCiD logo [38];  [30];  [42];  [43]; ORCiD logo [44];  [28];  [45];  [46]; ORCiD logo [44];  [24];  [26];  [26];  [31];  [21];  [47];  [34];  [31]; ORCiD logo [48];  [49];  [47]; ORCiD logo [8];  [21];  [50];  [19];  [51] « less
  1. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK
  2. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  3. Department of Physics, Duke University Durham, NC 27708, USA
  4. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA, Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010, USA
  6. School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
  7. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  8. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  9. PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
  10. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  11. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia, ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Canberra, Australia
  12. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Georgia, Dahlonega, GA 30597, USA
  13. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia, ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Canberra, Australia, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
  14. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
  15. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  16. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia
  17. INAF, Astrophysical Observatory of Turin, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Italy
  18. Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, A28, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
  19. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  20. Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil, Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400, Brazil
  21. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P. O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  22. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  23. CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France
  24. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
  25. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  26. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  27. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400, Brazil, Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid E-28040, Spain
  28. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  29. INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste, Italy, Institute for Fundamental Physics of the Universe, Via Beirut 2, I-34014 Trieste, Italy
  30. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400, Brazil, Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400, Brazil
  31. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid E-28040, Spain
  32. Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana 502285, India
  33. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  34. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), E-08034 Barcelona, Spain, Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
  35. Centre for Astrophysics & Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122, Australia
  36. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics & Cosmology, P. O. Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA, Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
  37. Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland, Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland
  38. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  39. Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  40. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
  41. Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Lowell Observatory, 1400 Mars Hill Rd, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
  42. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  43. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA, Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  44. Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
  45. Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain, Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  46. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA, UK
  47. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  48. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  49. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark Str, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  50. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany, Universitäts-Sternwarte, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München, Germany
  51. (
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); European Research Council (ERC); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF); MINECO; Brazilian Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia (INCT)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1617747
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1638166; OSTI ID: 1659588; OSTI ID: 1734764
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-76SF00515; SC0009924; 615929; 839090; NNG17PX03C; AST-1518052; AST-1815935; AST-1138766; AST-1536171; AYA2015-71825; ESP2015-66861; FPA2015-68048; SEV-2016-0588; SEV-2016-0597; MDM-2015-0509; 240672; 291329; 306478; 465376/2014-2; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journal Volume: 494 Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Surveys; supernovae; distance scale; cosmology; transient supernovae

Citation Formats

Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Wiseman, P., Kessler, R., Scolnic, D., Brout, D., D’Andrea, C. B., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Frohmaier, C., Galbany, L., Gupta, R. R., Gutiérrez, C. P., Hinton, S. R., Kelsey, L., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Nugent, P., Palmese, A., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Swann, E., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, B. E., Vincenzi, M., Carollo, D., Lewis, G. F., Sommer, N. E., Abbott, T. M. C., Aguena, M., Allam, S., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Bhargava, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Costanzi, M., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Everett, S., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., MacCrann, N., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Paz-Chinchón, F., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Tucker, D. L., Varga, T. N., Walker, A. R., and DES Collaboration). First cosmology results using type Ia supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: the effect of host galaxy properties on supernova luminosity. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/staa946.
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Wiseman, P., Kessler, R., Scolnic, D., Brout, D., D’Andrea, C. B., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Frohmaier, C., Galbany, L., Gupta, R. R., Gutiérrez, C. P., Hinton, S. R., Kelsey, L., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Nugent, P., Palmese, A., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Swann, E., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, B. E., Vincenzi, M., Carollo, D., Lewis, G. F., Sommer, N. E., Abbott, T. M. C., Aguena, M., Allam, S., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Bhargava, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Costanzi, M., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Everett, S., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., MacCrann, N., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Paz-Chinchón, F., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Tucker, D. L., Varga, T. N., Walker, A. R., & DES Collaboration). First cosmology results using type Ia supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: the effect of host galaxy properties on supernova luminosity. United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa946
Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Wiseman, P., Kessler, R., Scolnic, D., Brout, D., D’Andrea, C. B., Davis, T. M., Foley, R. J., Frohmaier, C., Galbany, L., Gupta, R. R., Gutiérrez, C. P., Hinton, S. R., Kelsey, L., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Möller, A., Nichol, R. C., Nugent, P., Palmese, A., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Swann, E., Thomas, R. C., Tucker, B. E., Vincenzi, M., Carollo, D., Lewis, G. F., Sommer, N. E., Abbott, T. M. C., Aguena, M., Allam, S., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Bhargava, S., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Costanzi, M., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Everett, S., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gaztanaga, E., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., James, D. J., Krause, E., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lima, M., MacCrann, N., Maia, M. A. G., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Paz-Chinchón, F., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Serrano, S., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Tucker, D. L., Varga, T. N., Walker, A. R., and DES Collaboration). Mon . "First cosmology results using type Ia supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: the effect of host galaxy properties on supernova luminosity". United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa946.
@article{osti_1617747,
title = {First cosmology results using type Ia supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: the effect of host galaxy properties on supernova luminosity},
author = {Smith, M. and Sullivan, M. and Wiseman, P. and Kessler, R. and Scolnic, D. and Brout, D. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Davis, T. M. and Foley, R. J. and Frohmaier, C. and Galbany, L. and Gupta, R. R. and Gutiérrez, C. P. and Hinton, S. R. and Kelsey, L. and Lidman, C. and Macaulay, E. and Möller, A. and Nichol, R. C. and Nugent, P. and Palmese, A. and Pursiainen, M. and Sako, M. and Swann, E. and Thomas, R. C. and Tucker, B. E. and Vincenzi, M. and Carollo, D. and Lewis, G. F. and Sommer, N. E. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Aguena, M. and Allam, S. and Avila, S. and Bertin, E. and Bhargava, S. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Costanzi, M. and da Costa, L. N. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Everett, S. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gaztanaga, E. and Glazebrook, K. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and James, D. J. and Krause, E. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lima, M. and MacCrann, N. and Maia, M. A. G. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and Melchior, P. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Roodman, A. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Serrano, S. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Tucker, D. L. and Varga, T. N. and Walker, A. R. and DES Collaboration)},
abstractNote = {We present improved photometric measurements for the host galaxies of 206 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey Supernova Program (DES-SN) and used in the first DES-SN cosmological analysis. For the DES-SN sample, when considering a 5D (z, x1, c, α, β) bias correction, we find evidence of a Hubble residual ‘mass step’, where SNe Ia in high-mass galaxies (>1010M⊙) are intrinsically more luminous (after correction) than their low-mass counterparts by $\gamma =0.040\pm 0.019$ mag. This value is larger by 0.031 mag than the value found in the first DES-SN cosmological analysis. This difference is due to a combination of updated photometric measurements and improved star formation histories and is not from host-galaxy misidentification. When using a 1D (redshift-only) bias correction the inferred mass step is larger, with $\gamma =0.066\pm 0.020$ mag. The 1D-5D γ difference for DES-SN is $0.026\pm 0.009$ mag. We show that this difference is due to a strong correlation between host galaxy stellar mass and the x1 component of the 5D distance-bias correction. Including an intrinsic correlation between the observed properties of SNe Ia, stretch and colour, and stellar mass in simulated SN Ia samples, we show that a 5D fit recovers γ with -9 mmag bias compared to a +2 mmag bias for a 1D fit. This difference can explain part of the discrepancy seen in the data. Improvements in modelling correlations between galaxy properties and SN are necessary to ensure unbiased precision estimates of the dark energy equation of state as we enter the era of LSST.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/staa946},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 3,
volume = 494,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {4}
}

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/staa946

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Evidence of environmental dependencies of Type Ia supernovae from the Nearby Supernova Factory indicated by local H α
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The reddening law of type Ia supernovae: separating intrinsic variability from dust using equivalent widths
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HOST GALAXIES OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE FROM THE NEARBY SUPERNOVA FACTORY
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THE EFFECT OF HOST GALAXIES ON TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE IN THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY
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Stellar population synthesis at the resolution of 2003
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