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Title: Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey

Abstract

We present a sample of 21 hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) and one hydrogen-rich SLSN (SLSN-II) detected during the five-year Dark Energy Survey (DES). These SNe, located in the redshift range 0.220 < z < 1.998, represent the largest homogeneously selected sample of SLSN events at high redshift. We present the observed $g, r, i, z$ light curves for these SNe, which we interpolate using Gaussian processes. The resulting light curves are analysed to determine the luminosity function of SLSNe-I, and their evolutionary time-scales. The DES SLSN-I sample significantly broadens the distribution of SLSN-I light-curve properties when combined with existing samples from the literature. We fit a magnetar model to our SLSNe, and find that this model alone is unable to replicate the behaviour of many of the bolometric light curves. We search the DES SLSN-I light curves for the presence of initial peaks prior to the main light-curve peak. Using a shock breakout model, our Monte Carlo search finds that 3 of our 14 events with pre-max data display such initial peaks. However, 10 events show no evidence for such peaks, in some cases down to an absolute magnitude of <-16, suggesting that such features are not ubiquitous to allmore » SLSN-I events. Finally, we also identify a red pre-peak feature within the light curve of one SLSN, which is comparable to that observed within SN2018bsz.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [1];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [3];  [8]; ORCiD logo [9];  [1];  [10] more »;  [11];  [12]; ORCiD logo [3];  [11]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [13];  [11];  [14]; ORCiD logo [3];  [15];  [16];  [17];  [9]; ORCiD logo [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [22];  [17];  [16];  [23];  [17];  [7];  [24];  [25];  [26];  [20];  [27];  [28];  [29]; ORCiD logo [30];  [31];  [32];  [17];  [33];  [34];  [20]; ORCiD logo [2];  [6];  [26];  [35];  [36];  [20]; ORCiD logo [37];  [38];  [21];  [39];  [40];  [41]; ORCiD logo [42];  [43];  [40]; ORCiD logo [3];  [17] « less
  1. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  3. Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX, UK
  4. PITT PACC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
  5. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348, Korea
  6. George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
  7. Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), E-08034 Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n, E-08193 Barcelona, Spain
  8. Centre for Astrophysics , Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122, Australia
  9. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics, Cosmology, PO Box 2450, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  10. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
  11. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
  12. The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2601, Australia
  13. Physics Department, Brandeis University, 415 South Street, Waltham, MA 02453, USA
  14. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, Chile
  15. CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris, France
  16. Department of Physics , Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  17. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  18. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain; Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil
  19. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain
  20. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-20921-400, Brazil
  21. Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), 28040 Madrid, Spain
  22. Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Kandi, Telangana 502285, India
  23. Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065, USA; Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  24. Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510, USA
  25. Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain
  26. Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801, USA; National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
  27. Department of Physics , Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland
  28. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
  29. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
  30. Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching, Germany; Universitäts-Sternwarte, Fakultät für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universität München, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München, Germany
  31. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
  32. Australian Astronomical Optics, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia
  33. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
  34. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, São Paulo, SP 05314-970, Brazil
  35. Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  36. Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona), Spain; Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, E-08010 Barcelona, Spain
  37. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109, USA
  38. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pevensey Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH, UK
  39. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
  40. Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
  41. Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 20921-400, Brazil; Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP 13083-859, Brazil
  42. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
  43. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
Contributing Org.:
[DES Collaboration]
OSTI Identifier:
1490844
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1531214; OSTI ID: 1561942
Report Number(s):
[arXiv:1812.04071; FERMILAB-PUB-18-669-AE]
[Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; 1708636]
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725; AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 487; Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; supernovae: general

Citation Formats

Angus, C. R., Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Inserra, C., Wiseman, P., D’Andrea, C. B., Thomas, B. P., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., Childress, M., Asorey, J., Brown, P. J., Casas, R., Castander, F. J., Curtin, C., Frohmaier, C., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, C., Kessler, R., Kim, A. G., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Nugent, P., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Soares-Santos, M., Thomas, R C, Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carretero, J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., and Tucker, D. L. Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1321.
Angus, C. R., Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Inserra, C., Wiseman, P., D’Andrea, C. B., Thomas, B. P., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., Childress, M., Asorey, J., Brown, P. J., Casas, R., Castander, F. J., Curtin, C., Frohmaier, C., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, C., Kessler, R., Kim, A. G., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Nugent, P., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Soares-Santos, M., Thomas, R C, Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carretero, J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., & Tucker, D. L. Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1321.
Angus, C. R., Smith, M., Sullivan, M., Inserra, C., Wiseman, P., D’Andrea, C. B., Thomas, B. P., Nichol, R. C., Galbany, L., Childress, M., Asorey, J., Brown, P. J., Casas, R., Castander, F. J., Curtin, C., Frohmaier, C., Glazebrook, K., Gruen, D., Gutierrez, C., Kessler, R., Kim, A. G., Lidman, C., Macaulay, E., Nugent, P., Pursiainen, M., Sako, M., Soares-Santos, M., Thomas, R C, Abbott, T. M. C., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Carnero Rosell, A., Carretero, J., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., García-Bellido, J., Gruendl, R. A., Gschwend, J., Hartley, W. G., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, K., Hoyle, B., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., and Tucker, D. L. Tue . "Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1321.
@article{osti_1490844,
title = {Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey},
author = {Angus, C. R. and Smith, M. and Sullivan, M. and Inserra, C. and Wiseman, P. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Thomas, B. P. and Nichol, R. C. and Galbany, L. and Childress, M. and Asorey, J. and Brown, P. J. and Casas, R. and Castander, F. J. and Curtin, C. and Frohmaier, C. and Glazebrook, K. and Gruen, D. and Gutierrez, C. and Kessler, R. and Kim, A. G. and Lidman, C. and Macaulay, E. and Nugent, P. and Pursiainen, M. and Sako, M. and Soares-Santos, M. and Thomas, R C and Abbott, T. M. C. and Avila, S. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carretero, J. and da Costa, L. N. and De Vicente, J. and Desai, S. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and García-Bellido, J. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gschwend, J. and Hartley, W. G. and Hollowood, D. L. and Honscheid, K. and Hoyle, B. and James, D. J. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Sanchez, E. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Tucker, D. L.},
abstractNote = {We present a sample of 21 hydrogen-free superluminous supernovae (SLSNe-I) and one hydrogen-rich SLSN (SLSN-II) detected during the five-year Dark Energy Survey (DES). These SNe, located in the redshift range 0.220 < z < 1.998, represent the largest homogeneously selected sample of SLSN events at high redshift. We present the observed $g, r, i, z$ light curves for these SNe, which we interpolate using Gaussian processes. The resulting light curves are analysed to determine the luminosity function of SLSNe-I, and their evolutionary time-scales. The DES SLSN-I sample significantly broadens the distribution of SLSN-I light-curve properties when combined with existing samples from the literature. We fit a magnetar model to our SLSNe, and find that this model alone is unable to replicate the behaviour of many of the bolometric light curves. We search the DES SLSN-I light curves for the presence of initial peaks prior to the main light-curve peak. Using a shock breakout model, our Monte Carlo search finds that 3 of our 14 events with pre-max data display such initial peaks. However, 10 events show no evidence for such peaks, in some cases down to an absolute magnitude of <-16, suggesting that such features are not ubiquitous to all SLSN-I events. Finally, we also identify a red pre-peak feature within the light curve of one SLSN, which is comparable to that observed within SN2018bsz.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1321},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = [2],
volume = [487],
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {5}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Spectra used for the spectroscopic confirmation of DES SLSN-I candidates, with observational details given in Table A. The DES spectra are binned by 5 Å bins to increase the clarity of the features. The phase provided corresponds to the phase at which the classification spectrum was taken inmore » the SN rest frame, not that of the spectral template. The black lines show the smoothed best fitting spectral template used to classify the spectrum for each SN (see Quimby et al. 2018 for more template details). We determine spectroscopic redshifts from either the presence of host galaxy absorption lines, or from fitting the observed SN features to those of established SLSNe within the literature. Here we highlight the O II absorption lines seen in the optical spectra around 4000Å.« less

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