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Title: The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models

Abstract

Here, we present UV, optical, and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave source from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Our data set extends from the discovery of the optical counterpart at 0.47-18.5 days post-merger, and includes observations with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), Gemini-South/FLAMINGOS-2 (GS/F2), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spectral energy distribution (SED) inferred from this photometry at 0.6 days is well described by a blackbody model with T ≈ 8300 K, a radius of R ≈ 4.5 × 1014 cm (corresponding to an expansion velocity of v ≈ 0.3c), and a bolometric luminosity of Lbol ≈ 5 × 1041 erg s-1. At 1.5 days we find a multi-component SED across the optical and NIR, and subsequently we observe rapid fading in the UV and blue optical bands and significant reddening of the optical/NIR colors. Modeling the entire data set, we find that models with heating from radioactive decay of 56Ni, or those with only a single component of opacity from r-process elements, fail to capture the rapid optical decline and red optical/NIR colors. Instead, models with two components consistent with lanthanide-poor and lanthanide-richmore » ejecta provide a good fit to the data; the resulting "blue" component has Mblueej ≈ 0.1 M and vblueej ≈ 0.3c, and the "red" component has and Mredej ≈ 0.04 M⊙ and vredej ≈ 0.1 c. These ejecta masses are broadly consistent with the estimated r-process production rate required to explain the Milky Way r-process abundances, providing the first evidence that binary neutron star (BNS) mergers can be a dominant site of r-process enrichment.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more »; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) (SC-21)
OSTI Identifier:
1421833
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1407127; OSTI ID: 1409348; OSTI ID: 1422480
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1710.05840; FERMILAB-PUB-17-470-A-AE-CD-PPD
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; ark:/13030/qt0wc6v6pt; TRN: US1801566
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 848; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; binaries: close; catalogs; gravitational waves; stars: neutron; surveys

Citation Formats

Cowperthwaite, P. S., Berger, E., Villar, V. A., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Chornock, R., Blanchard, P. K., Fong, W., Margutti, R., Soares-Santos, M., Alexander, K. D., Allam, S., Annis, J., Brout, D., Brown, D. A., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drout, M. R., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J. A., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. S., Guillochon, J., Herner, K., Holz, D. E., Kasen, D., Kessler, R., Marriner, J., Matheson, T., Neilsen, E. H., Quataert, E., Palmese, A., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D. M., Smith, N., Tucker, D. L., Williams, P. K. G., Balbinot, E., Carlin, J. L., Cook, E. R., Durret, F., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Marshall, J. L., Medina, G. E., Muir, J., Muñoz, R. R., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Vivas, A. K., Wester, W., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., DePoy, D. L., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Nuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Martini, P., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Neilsen, E., Nichol, R. C., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roe, N., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., Wechsler, R. H., Weller, J., Yanny, B., and Zuntz, J. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8fc7.
Cowperthwaite, P. S., Berger, E., Villar, V. A., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Chornock, R., Blanchard, P. K., Fong, W., Margutti, R., Soares-Santos, M., Alexander, K. D., Allam, S., Annis, J., Brout, D., Brown, D. A., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drout, M. R., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J. A., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. S., Guillochon, J., Herner, K., Holz, D. E., Kasen, D., Kessler, R., Marriner, J., Matheson, T., Neilsen, E. H., Quataert, E., Palmese, A., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D. M., Smith, N., Tucker, D. L., Williams, P. K. G., Balbinot, E., Carlin, J. L., Cook, E. R., Durret, F., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Marshall, J. L., Medina, G. E., Muir, J., Muñoz, R. R., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Vivas, A. K., Wester, W., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., DePoy, D. L., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Nuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Martini, P., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Neilsen, E., Nichol, R. C., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roe, N., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., Wechsler, R. H., Weller, J., Yanny, B., & Zuntz, J. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8fc7.
Cowperthwaite, P. S., Berger, E., Villar, V. A., Metzger, B. D., Nicholl, M., Chornock, R., Blanchard, P. K., Fong, W., Margutti, R., Soares-Santos, M., Alexander, K. D., Allam, S., Annis, J., Brout, D., Brown, D. A., Butler, R. E., Chen, H. -Y., Diehl, H. T., Doctor, Z., Drout, M. R., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Frieman, J. A., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. S., Guillochon, J., Herner, K., Holz, D. E., Kasen, D., Kessler, R., Marriner, J., Matheson, T., Neilsen, E. H., Quataert, E., Palmese, A., Rest, A., Sako, M., Scolnic, D. M., Smith, N., Tucker, D. L., Williams, P. K. G., Balbinot, E., Carlin, J. L., Cook, E. R., Durret, F., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Marshall, J. L., Medina, G. E., Muir, J., Muñoz, R. R., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Vivas, A. K., Wester, W., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Capozzi, D., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., DePoy, D. L., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Drlica-Wagner, A., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Nuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Lin, H., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., Martini, P., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Neilsen, E., Nichol, R. C., Ogando, R. L. C., Plazas, A. A., Roe, N., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schindler, R., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., Wechsler, R. H., Weller, J., Yanny, B., and Zuntz, J. Mon . "The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa8fc7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1421833.
@article{osti_1421833,
title = {The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models},
author = {Cowperthwaite, P. S. and Berger, E. and Villar, V. A. and Metzger, B. D. and Nicholl, M. and Chornock, R. and Blanchard, P. K. and Fong, W. and Margutti, R. and Soares-Santos, M. and Alexander, K. D. and Allam, S. and Annis, J. and Brout, D. and Brown, D. A. and Butler, R. E. and Chen, H. -Y. and Diehl, H. T. and Doctor, Z. and Drout, M. R. and Eftekhari, T. and Farr, B. and Finley, D. A. and Foley, R. J. and Frieman, J. A. and Fryer, C. L. and García-Bellido, J. and Gill, M. S. S. and Guillochon, J. and Herner, K. and Holz, D. E. and Kasen, D. and Kessler, R. and Marriner, J. and Matheson, T. and Neilsen, E. H. and Quataert, E. and Palmese, A. and Rest, A. and Sako, M. and Scolnic, D. M. and Smith, N. and Tucker, D. L. and Williams, P. K. G. and Balbinot, E. and Carlin, J. L. and Cook, E. R. and Durret, F. and Li, T. S. and Lopes, P. A. A. and Lourenço, A. C. C. and Marshall, J. L. and Medina, G. E. and Muir, J. and Muñoz, R. R. and Sauseda, M. and Schlegel, D. J. and Secco, L. F. and Vivas, A. K. and Wester, W. and Zenteno, A. and Zhang, Y. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Banerji, M. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bertin, E. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Capozzi, D. and Carnero Rosell, A. and Carrasco Kind, M. and Castander, F. J. and Crocce, M. and Cunha, C. E. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Costa, L. N. da and Davis, C. and DePoy, D. L. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Eifler, T. F. and Evrard, A. E. and Fernandez, E. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Giannantonio, T. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and Jain, B. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Johnson, M. D. and Kent, S. and Krause, E. and Kron, R. and Kuehn, K. and Nuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Lin, H. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and Martini, P. and McMahon, R. G. and Menanteau, F. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Mohr, J. J. and Neilsen, E. and Nichol, R. C. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Plazas, A. A. and Roe, N. and Romer, A. K. and Roodman, A. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schindler, R. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Smith, R. C. and Sobreira, F. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Thomas, R. C. and Troxel, M. A. and Vikram, V. and Walker, A. R. and Wechsler, R. H. and Weller, J. and Yanny, B. and Zuntz, J.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present UV, optical, and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave source from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Our data set extends from the discovery of the optical counterpart at 0.47-18.5 days post-merger, and includes observations with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), Gemini-South/FLAMINGOS-2 (GS/F2), and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spectral energy distribution (SED) inferred from this photometry at 0.6 days is well described by a blackbody model with T ≈ 8300 K, a radius of R ≈ 4.5 × 1014 cm (corresponding to an expansion velocity of v ≈ 0.3c), and a bolometric luminosity of Lbol ≈ 5 × 1041 erg s-1. At 1.5 days we find a multi-component SED across the optical and NIR, and subsequently we observe rapid fading in the UV and blue optical bands and significant reddening of the optical/NIR colors. Modeling the entire data set, we find that models with heating from radioactive decay of 56Ni, or those with only a single component of opacity from r-process elements, fail to capture the rapid optical decline and red optical/NIR colors. Instead, models with two components consistent with lanthanide-poor and lanthanide-rich ejecta provide a good fit to the data; the resulting "blue" component has Mblueej ≈ 0.1 M⊙ and vblueej ≈ 0.3c, and the "red" component has and Mredej ≈ 0.04 M⊙ and vredej ≈ 0.1 c. These ejecta masses are broadly consistent with the estimated r-process production rate required to explain the Milky Way r-process abundances, providing the first evidence that binary neutron star (BNS) mergers can be a dominant site of r-process enrichment.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa8fc7},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 848,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/19

SUPERCAL: CROSS-CALIBRATION OF MULTIPLE PHOTOMETRIC SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE COSMOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS WITH TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
journal, December 2015


COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE DISCOVERED DURING THE FIRST 1.5 yr OF THE Pan-STARRS1 SURVEY
journal, October 2014


Systematics of Dynamical mass Ejection, Nucleosynthesis, and Radioactively Powered Electromagnetic Signals from Neutron-Star Mergers
journal, July 2013


INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817
journal, October 2017


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst associated with GW170817
    journal, July 2018


    Observable features of GW170817 kilonova afterglow
    journal, June 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beniamini, Paz
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1564

    Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
    journal, October 2017

    • Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer
    • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24453

    Long-lived remnants from binary neutron star mergers
    journal, September 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2531

    An Empirical Study of Contamination in Deep, Rapid, and Wide-field Optical Follow-up of Gravitational Wave Events
    journal, April 2018


    The R -Process Alliance: A Comprehensive Abundance Analysis of HD 222925, a Metal-poor Star with an Extreme R -process Enhancement of [Eu/H] = −0.14
    journal, October 2018

    • Roederer, Ian U.; Sakari, Charli M.; Placco, Vinicius M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aadd92

    Finding the Remnants of the Milky Way's Last Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, July 2019

    • Wu, Meng-Ru; Banerjee, Projjwal; Metzger, Brian D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2593

    Follow-up of the Neutron Star Bearing Gravitational-wave Candidate Events S190425z and S190426c with MMT and SOAR
    journal, July 2019

    • Hosseinzadeh, G.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gomez, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab271c

    Origin of the heavy elements in binary neutron-star mergers from a gravitational-wave event
    journal, October 2017

    • Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian; Barnes, Jennifer
    • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24453

    The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst associated with GW170817
    journal, July 2018


    Long-lived remnants from binary neutron star mergers
    journal, September 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2531

    Observable features of GW170817 kilonova afterglow
    journal, June 2019

    • Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Giannios, Dimitrios; Beniamini, Paz
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1564

    GW170817 --the first observed neutron star merger and its kilonova: Implications for the astrophysical site of the r-process
    journal, November 2019


    An Empirical Study of Contamination in Deep, Rapid, and Wide-field Optical Follow-up of Gravitational Wave Events
    journal, April 2018


    The R -Process Alliance: A Comprehensive Abundance Analysis of HD 222925, a Metal-poor Star with an Extreme R -process Enhancement of [Eu/H] = −0.14
    journal, October 2018

    • Roederer, Ian U.; Sakari, Charli M.; Placco, Vinicius M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aadd92

    Finding the Remnants of the Milky Way's Last Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, July 2019

    • Wu, Meng-Ru; Banerjee, Projjwal; Metzger, Brian D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab2593

    Follow-up of the Neutron Star Bearing Gravitational-wave Candidate Events S190425z and S190426c with MMT and SOAR
    journal, July 2019

    • Hosseinzadeh, G.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gomez, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab271c