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Title: The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart Using the Dark Energy Camera

Abstract

Here, we present the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) discovery of the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star merger detected through gravitational-wave emission, GW170817. Our observations commenced 10.5 hr post-merger, as soon as the localization region became accessible from Chile. We imaged 70 deg2 in the i and z bands, covering 93% of the initial integrated localization probability, to a depth necessary to identify likely optical counterparts (e.g., a kilonova). At 11.4 hr post-merger we detected a bright optical transient located $$10\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 6$$ from the nucleus of NGC 4993 at redshift z = 0.0098, consistent (for $${H}_{0}=70$$ km s–1 Mpc–1) with the distance of 40 ± 8 Mpc reported by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration (LVC). At detection the transient had magnitudes of $i=17.3$ and $z=17.4$, and thus an absolute magnitude of $${M}_{i}=-15.7$$, in the luminosity range expected for a kilonova. We identified 1500 potential transient candidates. Applying simple selection criteria aimed at rejecting background events such as supernovae, we find the transient associated with NGC 4993 as the only remaining plausible counterpart, and reject chance coincidence at the 99.5% confidence level. We therefore conclude that the optical counterpart we have identified near NGC 4993 is associated with GW170817. This discovery ushers in the era of multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves and demonstrates the power of DECam to identify the optical counterparts of gravitational-wave sources.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
Contributing Org.:
The Dark Energy Survey and The Dark Energy Camera GW-EM Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1408100
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418148; OSTI ID: 1421834; OSTI ID: 1422481; OSTI ID: 1422966; OSTI ID: 1602503
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-17-454-AE-CD-PPD; arXiv:1710.05459; LA-UR-17-29523
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213; TRN: US1702930
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359; AC02-05CH11231; AC05-00OR22725; AC52-06NA25396; SC0011726
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 848; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; binaries: close; catalogs; gravitational waves; stars: neutron; surveys; 79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Soares-Santos, M., Holz, D. E., Annis, J., Chornock, R., Herner, K., Berger, E., Brout, D., Chen, H. -Y., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Doctor, Z., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Yanny, B., Lin, H., Scolnic, D., Cowperthwaite, P., Neilsen, E., Marriner, J., Kuropatkin, N., Hartley, W. G., Paz-Chinchón, F., Alexander, K. D., Balbinot, E., Blanchard, P., Brown, D. A., Carlin, J. L., Conselice, C., Cook, E. R., Drlica-Wagner, A., Drout, M. R., Durret, F., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. .. S., Gruendl, R. A., Hanna, C., Kasen, D., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Medina, G. E., Metzger, B. D., Muñoz, R. R., Muir, J., Nicholl, M., Quataert, E., Rest, A., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Sobreira, F., Stebbins, A., Villar, V. A., Vivas, K., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Williams, P. K. G., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., and Weller, J. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart Using the Dark Energy Camera. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9059.
Soares-Santos, M., Holz, D. E., Annis, J., Chornock, R., Herner, K., Berger, E., Brout, D., Chen, H. -Y., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Doctor, Z., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Yanny, B., Lin, H., Scolnic, D., Cowperthwaite, P., Neilsen, E., Marriner, J., Kuropatkin, N., Hartley, W. G., Paz-Chinchón, F., Alexander, K. D., Balbinot, E., Blanchard, P., Brown, D. A., Carlin, J. L., Conselice, C., Cook, E. R., Drlica-Wagner, A., Drout, M. R., Durret, F., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. .. S., Gruendl, R. A., Hanna, C., Kasen, D., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Medina, G. E., Metzger, B. D., Muñoz, R. R., Muir, J., Nicholl, M., Quataert, E., Rest, A., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Sobreira, F., Stebbins, A., Villar, V. A., Vivas, K., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Williams, P. K. G., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., & Weller, J. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart Using the Dark Energy Camera. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9059
Soares-Santos, M., Holz, D. E., Annis, J., Chornock, R., Herner, K., Berger, E., Brout, D., Chen, H. -Y., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Allam, S., Tucker, D. L., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Doctor, Z., Diehl, H. T., Frieman, J., Yanny, B., Lin, H., Scolnic, D., Cowperthwaite, P., Neilsen, E., Marriner, J., Kuropatkin, N., Hartley, W. G., Paz-Chinchón, F., Alexander, K. D., Balbinot, E., Blanchard, P., Brown, D. A., Carlin, J. L., Conselice, C., Cook, E. R., Drlica-Wagner, A., Drout, M. R., Durret, F., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D. A., Foley, R. J., Fong, W., Fryer, C. L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M. S. .. S., Gruendl, R. A., Hanna, C., Kasen, D., Li, T. S., Lopes, P. A. A., Lourenço, A. C. C., Margutti, R., Marshall, J. L., Matheson, T., Medina, G. E., Metzger, B. D., Muñoz, R. R., Muir, J., Nicholl, M., Quataert, E., Rest, A., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D. J., Secco, L. F., Sobreira, F., Stebbins, A., Villar, V. A., Vivas, K., Walker, A. R., Wester, W., Williams, P. K. G., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D. L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F. J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C. E., D’Andrea, C. B., Costa, L. N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D. W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D. A., Gruen, D., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D. J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M. W. G., Johnson, M. D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M. A. G., March, M., McMahon, R. G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Mohr, J. J., Nichol, R. C., Nord, B., Ogando, R. L. C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R. C., Troxel, M. A., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R. H., and Weller, J. Mon . "The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart Using the Dark Energy Camera". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aa9059. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1408100.
@article{osti_1408100,
title = {The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the Optical Counterpart Using the Dark Energy Camera},
author = {Soares-Santos, M. and Holz, D. E. and Annis, J. and Chornock, R. and Herner, K. and Berger, E. and Brout, D. and Chen, H. -Y. and Kessler, R. and Sako, M. and Allam, S. and Tucker, D. L. and Butler, R. E. and Palmese, A. and Doctor, Z. and Diehl, H. T. and Frieman, J. and Yanny, B. and Lin, H. and Scolnic, D. and Cowperthwaite, P. and Neilsen, E. and Marriner, J. and Kuropatkin, N. and Hartley, W. G. and Paz-Chinchón, F. and Alexander, K. D. and Balbinot, E. and Blanchard, P. and Brown, D. A. and Carlin, J. L. and Conselice, C. and Cook, E. R. and Drlica-Wagner, A. and Drout, M. R. and Durret, F. and Eftekhari, T. and Farr, B. and Finley, D. A. and Foley, R. J. and Fong, W. and Fryer, C. L. and García-Bellido, J. and Gill, M. S. .. S. and Gruendl, R. A. and Hanna, C. and Kasen, D. and Li, T. S. and Lopes, P. A. A. and Lourenço, A. C. C. and Margutti, R. and Marshall, J. L. and Matheson, T. and Medina, G. E. and Metzger, B. D. and Muñoz, R. R. and Muir, J. and Nicholl, M. and Quataert, E. and Rest, A. and Sauseda, M. and Schlegel, D. J. and Secco, L. F. and Sobreira, F. and Stebbins, A. and Villar, V. A. and Vivas, K. and Walker, A. R. and Wester, W. and Williams, P. K. G. and Zenteno, A. and Zhang, Y. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Banerji, M. and Bechtol, K. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Buckley-Geer, E. and Burke, D. L. and Rosell, A. Carnero and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Castander, F. J. and Crocce, M. and Cunha, C. E. and D’Andrea, C. B. and Costa, L. N. da and Davis, C. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Fernandez, E. and Flaugher, B. and Fosalba, P. and Gaztanaga, E. and Gerdes, D. W. and Giannantonio, T. and Goldstein, D. A. and Gruen, D. and Gschwend, J. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and Jain, B. and James, D. J. and Jeltema, T. and Johnson, M. W. G. and Johnson, M. D. and Kent, S. and Krause, E. and Kron, R. and Kuehn, K. and Kuhlmann, S. and Lahav, O. and Lima, M. and Maia, M. A. G. and March, M. and McMahon, R. G. and Menanteau, F. and Miquel, R. and Mohr, J. J. and Nichol, R. C. and Nord, B. and Ogando, R. L. C. and Petravick, D. and Plazas, A. A. and Romer, A. K. and Roodman, A. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sanchez, E. and Scarpine, V. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, M. and Smith, R. C. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Thomas, R. C. and Troxel, M. A. and Vikram, V. and Wechsler, R. H. and Weller, J.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) discovery of the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star merger detected through gravitational-wave emission, GW170817. Our observations commenced 10.5 hr post-merger, as soon as the localization region became accessible from Chile. We imaged 70 deg2 in the i and z bands, covering 93% of the initial integrated localization probability, to a depth necessary to identify likely optical counterparts (e.g., a kilonova). At 11.4 hr post-merger we detected a bright optical transient located $10\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 6$ from the nucleus of NGC 4993 at redshift z = 0.0098, consistent (for ${H}_{0}=70$ km s–1 Mpc–1) with the distance of 40 ± 8 Mpc reported by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration (LVC). At detection the transient had magnitudes of $i=17.3$ and $z=17.4$, and thus an absolute magnitude of ${M}_{i}=-15.7$, in the luminosity range expected for a kilonova. We identified 1500 potential transient candidates. Applying simple selection criteria aimed at rejecting background events such as supernovae, we find the transient associated with NGC 4993 as the only remaining plausible counterpart, and reject chance coincidence at the 99.5% confidence level. We therefore conclude that the optical counterpart we have identified near NGC 4993 is associated with GW170817. This discovery ushers in the era of multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves and demonstrates the power of DECam to identify the optical counterparts of gravitational-wave sources.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa9059},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 848,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab25f5

    Follow-up of the Neutron Star Bearing Gravitational-wave Candidate Events S190425z and S190426c with MMT and SOAR
    journal, July 2019

    • Hosseinzadeh, G.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Gomez, S.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 880, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab271c

    Prospects for observing and localizing gravitational-wave transients with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA
    journal, April 2018


    Cosmology with Gravitational Waves in DES and LSST
    journal, October 2017

    • Herner, Kenneth; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Annis, James
    • Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, Vol. 13, Issue S338
    • DOI: 10.1017/s1743921318003794

    Optical emission from a kilonova following a gravitational-wave-detected neutron-star merger
    journal, October 2017

    • Arcavi, Iair; Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew
    • Nature, Vol. 551, Issue 7678
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature24291

    A two per cent Hubble constant measurement from standard sirens within five years
    journal, October 2018


    Measuring cosmic distances with standard sirens
    journal, December 2018

    • Holz, Daniel E.; Hughes, Scott A.; Schutz, Bernard F.
    • Physics Today, Vol. 71, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1063/pt.3.4090

    Numerical relativity of compact binaries in the 21st century
    journal, November 2018


    Does the Hubble constant tension call for new physics?
    journal, September 2018


    Prospects of the local Hubble parameter measurement using gravitational waves from double neutron stars
    journal, January 2018

    • Seto, Naoki; Kyutoku, Koutarou
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 475, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty090

    The progenitors of compact-object binaries: impact of metallicity, common envelope and natal kicks
    journal, July 2018

    • Giacobbo, Nicola; Mapelli, Michela
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 480, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty1999

    Late-time evolution of afterglows from off-axis neutron star mergers
    journal, August 2018

    • Lamb, Gavin P.; Mandel, Ilya; Resmi, Lekshmi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2196

    The host galaxies of double compact objects merging in the local Universe
    journal, October 2018

    • Mapelli, Michela; Giacobbo, Nicola; Toffano, Mattia
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 481, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2663

    The impact of electron-capture supernovae on merging double neutron stars
    journal, October 2018

    • Giacobbo, Nicola; Mapelli, Michela
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2848

    Host galaxies of merging compact objects: mass, star formation rate, metallicity, and colours
    journal, May 2019

    • Artale, M. Celeste; Mapelli, Michela; Giacobbo, Nicola
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1382

    Jet structure in the afterglow phase for gamma-ray bursts with a precessing jet
    journal, June 2019

    • Huang, Bao-Quan; Lin, Da-Bin; Liu, Tong
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 487, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1426

    Detectability of neutron star merger afterglows
    journal, July 2019

    • Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 488, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz1906

    Probing the extragalactic fast transient sky at minute time-scales with DECam
    journal, December 2019

    • Andreoni, I.; Cooke, J.; Webb, S.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 491, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3381

    Implications of the search for optical counterparts during the first six months of the Advanced LIGO’s and Advanced Virgo’s third observing run: possible limits on the ejecta mass and binary properties
    journal, December 2019

    • Coughlin, Michael W.; Dietrich, Tim; Antier, Sarah
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 492, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz3457

    Imprints of r-process heating on fall-back accretion: distinguishing black hole–neutron star from double neutron star mergers
    journal, March 2019

    • Desai, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Foucart, F.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 485, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz644

    Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey for an optical counterpart of GW170817‡
    journal, February 2018

    • Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki
    • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, Vol. 70, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/pasj/psy007

    Full transport model of GW170817-like disk produces a blue kilonova
    journal, July 2019


    Are fast radio bursts the most likely electromagnetic counterpart of neutron star mergers resulting in prompt collapse?
    journal, August 2019


    Generalized framework for testing gravity with gravitational-wave propagation. I. Formulation
    journal, May 2018


    A Magnetar Origin for the Kilonova Ejecta in GW170817
    journal, March 2018

    • Metzger, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 856, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aab095

    Shock Acceleration of Electrons and Synchrotron Emission from the Dynamical Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, May 2018

    • Lee, Shiu-Hang; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawanaka, Norita
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 858, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabaea

    Three-dimensional GRMHD Simulations of Neutrino-cooled Accretion Disks from Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, May 2018


    Mass Ejection from the Remnant of a Binary Neutron Star Merger: Viscous-radiation Hydrodynamics Study
    journal, June 2018

    • Fujibayashi, Sho; Kiuchi, Kenta; Nishimura, Nobuya
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 860, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aabafd

    Coincident Detection Significance in Multimessenger Astronomy
    journal, June 2018


    Numerical Simulations of the Jet Dynamics and Synchrotron Radiation of Binary Neutron Star Merger Event GW170817/GRB 170817A
    journal, August 2018

    • Xie, Xiaoyi; Zrake, Jonathan; MacFadyen, Andrew
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 863, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aacf9c

    On GW170817 and the Galactic Binary Neutron Star Population
    journal, October 2018


    Jet Dynamics in Compact Object Mergers: GW170817 Likely Had a Successful Jet
    journal, October 2018

    • Duffell, Paul C.; Quataert, Eliot; Kasen, Daniel
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 866, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae084

    Low-frequency View of GW170817/GRB 170817A with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope
    journal, October 2018

    • Resmi, L.; Schulze, S.; Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae1a6

    From γ to Radio: The Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817
    journal, October 2018


    Scattered Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Waves and Implications of GW170817 and GRB 170817A
    journal, October 2018

    • Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Kashiyama, Kazumi
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 867, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/aae30a

    Optimized Radio Follow-up of Binary Neutron-star Mergers
    journal, November 2018


    First Cosmology Results Using Type Ia Supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey: Photometric Pipeline and Light-curve Data Release
    journal, March 2019


    Radioactive Heating and Late Time Kilonova Light Curves
    journal, May 2019


    Optical Follow-up of Gravitational-wave Events during the Second Advanced LIGO/VIRGO Observing Run with the DLT40 Survey
    journal, April 2019

    • Yang, Sheng; Sand, David J.; Valenti, Stefano
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 875, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/ab0e06

    Late-time Kilonova Light Curves and Implications to GW170817
    journal, June 2019


    Double Neutron Star Mergers from Hierarchical Triple-star Systems
    journal, September 2019


    Extended Calculations of Energy Levels and Transition Rates of Nd ii-iv Ions for Application to Neutron Star Mergers
    journal, February 2019

    • Gaigalas, Gediminas; Kato, Daiji; Rynkun, Pavel
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 240, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/aaf9b8

    ν bhlight : Radiation GRMHD for Neutrino-driven Accretion Flows
    journal, April 2019

    • Miller, Jonah M.; Ryan, Ben. R.; Dolence, Joshua C.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 241, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/ab09fc

    INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817
    journal, October 2017


    Improved Constraints on H 0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817
    journal, December 2017


    GW170817: Joint Constraint on the Neutron Star Equation of State from Multimessenger Observations
    journal, January 2018

    • Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Zappa, Francesco
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 852, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa402

    Brightening X-Ray Emission from GW170817/GRB 170817A: Further Evidence for an Outflow
    journal, January 2018

    • Ruan, John J.; Nynka, Melania; Haggard, Daryl
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 853, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaa4f3

    A Precise Distance to the Host Galaxy of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 Using Surface Brightness Fluctuations
    journal, February 2018

    • Cantiello, Michele; Jensen, J. B.; Blakeslee, J. P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 854, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaad64

    The Binary Neutron Star Event LIGO/Virgo GW170817 160 Days after Merger: Synchrotron Emission across the Electromagnetic Spectrum
    journal, March 2018


    Continued Brightening of the Afterglow of GW170817/GRB 170817A as Being Due to a Delayed Energy Injection
    journal, May 2018


    Observational Implications of Lowering the LIGO-Virgo Alert Threshold
    journal, July 2018

    • Lynch, Ryan; Coughlin, Michael; Vitale, Salvatore
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 861, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aacf9f

    Radio Sky Maps of the GRB 170817A Afterglow from Simulations
    journal, September 2018

    • Zrake, Jonathan; Xie, Xiaoyi; MacFadyen, Andrew
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 865, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaddf8

    A Strong Jet Signature in the Late-time Light Curve of GW170817
    journal, November 2018


    A Standard Siren Measurement of the Hubble Constant from GW170817 without the Electromagnetic Counterpart
    journal, January 2019

    • Fishbach, M.; Gray, R.; Hernandez, I. Magaña
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 871, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/aaf96e

    Implications from GW170817 for Δ-isobar Admixed Hypernuclear Compact Stars
    journal, April 2019


    Measuring the Delay Time Distribution of Binary Neutron Stars. I. Through Scaling Relations of the Host Galaxies of Gravitational-wave Events
    journal, June 2019


    GROWTH on S190426c: Real-time Search for a Counterpart to the Probable Neutron Star–Black Hole Merger using an Automated Difference Imaging Pipeline for DECam
    journal, August 2019

    • Goldstein, Daniel A.; Andreoni, Igor; Nugent, Peter E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3046

    GROWTH on S190510g: DECam Observation Planning and Follow-up of a Distant Binary Neutron Star Merger Candidate
    journal, August 2019

    • Andreoni, Igor; Goldstein, Daniel A.; Anand, Shreya
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 881, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3399

    Binary Black Hole Population Properties Inferred from the First and Second Observing Runs of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo
    journal, September 2019


    The Optical Afterglow of GW170817: An Off-axis Structured Jet and Deep Constraints on a Globular Cluster Origin
    journal, September 2019

    • Fong, W.; Blanchard, P. K.; Alexander, K. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 883, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab3d9e

    Upscattered Cocoon Emission in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts as High-energy Gamma-Ray Counterparts to Gravitational Waves
    journal, December 2019

    • Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta; Ioka, Kunihito
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 887, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/2041-8213/ab59e1