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Title: The lightest organic radical cation for charge storage in redox flow batteries

In advanced electrical grids of the future, electrochemically rechargeable fluids of high energy density will capture the power generated from intermittent sources like solar and wind. To meet this outstanding technological demand there is a need to understand the fundamental limits and interplay of electrochemical potential, stability, and solubility in low-weight redox-active molecules. By generating a combinatorial set of 1,4-dimethoxybenzene derivatives with different arrangements of substituents, we discovered a mini-malistic structure that combines exceptional long-term stability in its oxidized form and a record-breaking intrinsic capacity of 161 mAh/g. The nonaqueous redox flow battery has been demonstrated that uses this molecule as a catholyte material and operated stably for 100 charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, the observed stability trends are rationalized by mechanistic considerations of the reaction pathways.
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  4. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 6; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Nature Publishing Group
Research Org:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Joint Center for Energy Storage Research (JCESR); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division
Country of Publication:
United States
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; redox active molecules; radical cation; flow battery; dimethoxybenzene; electrochemistry
OSTI Identifier: