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Title: Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays

Abstract

A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.

Inventors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. (Albuquerque, NM)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SANDIA CORP
OSTI Identifier:
870607
Patent Number(s):
US 5557627
Assignee:
Sandia Corporation (Albuquerque, NM) SNL
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Patent
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
visible-wavelength; semiconductor; lasers; arrays; visible; laser; inalgap; active; region; surrounded; algaas; layers; carbon; sole; p-type; dopant; embodiments; provided; vertical-cavity; surface-emitting; vcsels; edge-emitting; eels; transition; comprised; substantially; indium-free; alloy; alasp; algaasp; dbr; mirrors; confinement; improve; carrier; injection; device; efficiency; reducing; band; offsets; vcsel; devices; fabricated; according; one-wavelength-thick; lambda; optical; cavity; operate; continuous-wave; cw; lasing; output; powers; mw; peak; power; conversion; 11; cavity surface; surface-emitting laser; algaas layer; transition layer; vertical-cavity surface-emitting; semiconductor laser; power conversion; active region; optical cavity; conversion efficiency; output power; peak power; surface-emitting lasers; p-type dopant; semiconductor alloy; gaas layer; semiconductor lasers; type dopant; output powers; emitting laser; fabricated according; edge-emitting lasers; visible semiconductor; emitting lasers; algaas layers; devices fabricated; /372/

Citation Formats

Schneider, Jr., Richard P., and Crawford, Mary H. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Schneider, Jr., Richard P., & Crawford, Mary H. Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays. United States.
Schneider, Jr., Richard P., and Crawford, Mary H. Mon . "Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/870607.
@article{osti_870607,
title = {Visible-wavelength semiconductor lasers and arrays},
author = {Schneider, Jr., Richard P. and Crawford, Mary H.},
abstractNote = {A visible semiconductor laser. The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thick (1.lambda.) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1996},
month = {Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1996}
}

Patent:

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  • The visible semiconductor laser includes an InAlGaP active region surrounded by one or more AlGaAs layers on each side, with carbon as the sole p-type dopant. Embodiments of the invention are provided as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and as edge-emitting lasers (EELs). One or more transition layers comprised of a substantially indium-free semiconductor alloy such as AlAsP, AlGaAsP, or the like may be provided between the InAlGaP active region and the AlGaAS DBR mirrors or confinement layers to improve carrier injection and device efficiency by reducing any band offsets. Visible VCSEL devices fabricated according to the invention with a one-wavelength-thickmore » (1{lambda}) optical cavity operate continuous-wave (cw) with lasing output powers up to 8 mW, and a peak power conversion efficiency of up to 11%. 5 figs.« less
  • A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m .lambda./2n.sub.eff where m is an integer, .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n.sub.eff is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirror and substratemore » to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described.« less
  • A photodetector device, including: a scintillator material operable for receiving incident radiation and emitting photons in response; a photodetector material coupled to the scintillator material operable for receiving the photons emitted by the scintillator material and generating a current in response, wherein the photodetector material includes a chalcopyrite semiconductor crystal; and a circuit coupled to the photodetector material operable for characterizing the incident radiation based on the current generated by the photodetector material. Optionally, the scintillator material includes a gamma scintillator material and the incident radiation received includes gamma rays. Optionally, the photodetector material is further operable for receiving thermalmore » neutrons and generating a current in response. The circuit is further operable for characterizing the thermal neutrons based on the current generated by the photodetector material.« less
  • A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser is disclosed comprising a laser cavity sandwiched between two distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser cavity comprises a pair of spacer layers surrounding one or more active, optically emitting quantum-well layers having a bandgap in the visible which serve as the active optically emitting material of the device. The thickness of the laser cavity is m [lambda]/2n[sub eff] where m is an integer, [lambda] is the free-space wavelength of the laser radiation and n[sub eff] is the effective index of refraction of the cavity. Electrical pumping of the laser is achieved by heavily doping the bottom mirrormore » and substrate to one conductivity-type and heavily doping regions of the upper mirror with the opposite conductivity type to form a diode structure and applying a suitable voltage to the diode structure. Specific embodiments of the invention for generating red, green, and blue radiation are described. 8 figures.« less
  • Disclosed is a semiconductor laser device capable of radiating a visible laser in which device an activation layer having an active stripe zone doped by ion-implantation of nitrogen atoms is vertically sandwiched between an overlying p-type confining layer and n-type confining layer, and the p-type confining layer is horizontally bounded by a p-n junction reverse bias layer, whereby in supplying a bias electric current through the p-type confining layer, the electric current avoids the counter bias layer to converge a flow through the active zone to the underlying n-type confining layer, thus attaining the same effect as would lower themore » threshold value of the luminescent semiconductor, and allowing the laser device to oscillate at an elevated efficiency in the range of visible laser.« less