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Title: Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation

Abstract

This study was designed to measure the effects of ionizing radiation on poliovirus particles when given under conditions where either direct (in broth) or indirect (in water) effects were predominant. Under direct conditions, inactivation of poliovirus was found to be due primarily to RNA damage, although capsid damage could account for about one-third of the viral inactivation. RNA damage did not appear to be due to strand breakage and therefore was probably caused primarily by base damage or crosslink formation. Capsid damage under direct irradiation conditions did not result in significant alterations of either the sedimentation coefficients or the isoelectric points of the poliovirus particles or detectable modification of the sizes of the viral proteins. It did, however, cause loss of availability to bind to host cells. Under indirect conditions no more than 25% of viral inactivation appeared to be due to RNA damage. However, the sedimentation coefficients and isoelectric points of the viral particles were greatly altered, and their abilities to bind to cells were lost at about three-fourths the rate of loss of infectivity. Capsid damage in this case did result in changes in the sizes of capsid proteins. Therefore, the majority of the radiation inactivation under indirectmore » conditions appeared to be due to protein damage.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia Lbs., Albuquerque, NM
OSTI Identifier:
6817801
DOE Contract Number:
E(29-2)-3536
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Radiat. Res.; (United States); Journal Volume: 83:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; POLIO VIRUS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; INACTIVATION; RNA; CARBON 14 COMPOUNDS; COBALT 60; CROSS-LINKING; ELECTROPHORESIS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; HELA CELLS; IONIZING RADIATIONS; NUCLEOSIDES; PROTEINS; RADIATION DOSES; STRAND BREAKS; SURVIVAL CURVES; TRITIUM COMPOUNDS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; COBALT ISOTOPES; DATA; DOSES; INFORMATION; INTERMEDIATE MASS NUCLEI; INTERNAL CONVERSION RADIOISOTOPES; ISOMERIC TRANSITION ISOTOPES; ISOTOPES; LABELLED COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; MINUTES LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; NUCLEI; NUCLEIC ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; NUMERICAL DATA; ODD-ODD NUCLEI; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PARASITES; POLYMERIZATION; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIATIONS; RADIOISOTOPES; RIBOSIDES; VIRUSES; YEARS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES 560131* -- Radiation Effects on Microorganisms-- Basic Studies-- (-1987); 550701 -- Microbiology-- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Ward, R.L.. Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.2307/3575284.
Ward, R.L.. Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation. United States. doi:10.2307/3575284.
Ward, R.L.. 1980. "Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation". United States. doi:10.2307/3575284.
@article{osti_6817801,
title = {Mechanisms of poliovirus inactivation by the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation},
author = {Ward, R.L.},
abstractNote = {This study was designed to measure the effects of ionizing radiation on poliovirus particles when given under conditions where either direct (in broth) or indirect (in water) effects were predominant. Under direct conditions, inactivation of poliovirus was found to be due primarily to RNA damage, although capsid damage could account for about one-third of the viral inactivation. RNA damage did not appear to be due to strand breakage and therefore was probably caused primarily by base damage or crosslink formation. Capsid damage under direct irradiation conditions did not result in significant alterations of either the sedimentation coefficients or the isoelectric points of the poliovirus particles or detectable modification of the sizes of the viral proteins. It did, however, cause loss of availability to bind to host cells. Under indirect conditions no more than 25% of viral inactivation appeared to be due to RNA damage. However, the sedimentation coefficients and isoelectric points of the viral particles were greatly altered, and their abilities to bind to cells were lost at about three-fourths the rate of loss of infectivity. Capsid damage in this case did result in changes in the sizes of capsid proteins. Therefore, the majority of the radiation inactivation under indirect conditions appeared to be due to protein damage.},
doi = {10.2307/3575284},
journal = {Radiat. Res.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 83:2,
place = {United States},
year = 1980,
month = 8
}
  • From the results obtained with zygnema it was concluded that the direct effect of radiation manifests itself by long lasting damage which can be caused only by a hit of the nucleus and the indirect effect of radiation appears as a temporary effect caused by irradiating the cytoplasm. (auth)
  • Direct and indirect x-radiation effects on 0.007 to 100% concentrations of DNA were analyzed. It was found that the ratio of direct-indirect effects ( BETA / alpha ) on the investigated DNA preparations exceeds one. The effectiveness ( BETA / alpha ) depends greatly on the quality of the preparation; the effect is enhanced by increased viscosity (polymeric strength). With reduced concentration the relative effectiveness ( BETA / alpha ) decreased while the direct effectiveness ( BETA / alpha ) showed a signiftcant increase. A formula was developed for evaluating the direct and indirect effects as functions of solution concentration.more » (R.V.J.)« less
  • The theoretical developments presented provide an improved method of treating indirect inactivation. It is postulated that the probabilities associated with radical destruction and solute inactivation can be measured separately, a predictable behavior is established for the data, the reliability of each of the parameters can be determined, the solvent capability (which includes radical recombinants as well as impurities) can be readily measured and corrected for, the determination of protection coefficients is simplified, and two types of protection can be distinguished. Methylene blue and trypsin have been used as solutes to demonstrate applications of the revised method. The theory and resultsmore » not only established an improved method of treating indirect inactivation but provide a criterion for discriminating between indirect and other types of inactivation. The criteria provide a means of differentiating mechanisms by which radiation interacts with biological material and of showing how these mechanisms and their associated probabilities are affected by pH and the ionic complement of the solvent. Reanalysis of previously published protein data showed that the linear relation predicted by this method is applicable at the lowest protein concentrations. At high concentrations the yield may--- depending on experimental conditions---become larger than expected for indirect inactivation by one kind of rsdical alone. Such deviations were taken as evidence that either more than one species of radical was producing inactivation or that more likely there was an effect arising from the production of ions in a target volume larger than the protein molecule.« less