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Title: Mitochondria are required for ATM activation by extranuclear oxidative stress in cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2 cells

Highlights: • Oxidative ATM activation can occur in the absence of nuclear DNA damage response. • The oxidized Hep G2 cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. • The obtained results suggest that the ATM activation occurs in mitochondria. • ATM failed to respond to oxidative stress in mitochondria-depleted Hep G2 cells. • Mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. - Abstract: Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response (DDR). A recent study reported that oxidized ATM can be active in the absence of DDR. However, the issue of where ATM is activated by oxidative stress remains unclear. Regarding the localization of ATM, two possible locations, namely, mitochondria and peroxisomes are possible. We report herein that ATM can be activated when exposed to hydrogen peroxide without inducing nuclear DDR in Hep G2 cells, and the oxidized cells could be subjected to subcellular fractionation. The first detergent-based fractionation experiment revealed that active, phosphorylated ATM was located in the second fraction, which also contained both mitochondria and peroxisomes. An alternative fractionation method involving homogenization and differential centrifugation, which permits the light membrane fraction containing peroxisomes to be produced, but not mitochondria,more » revealed that the light membrane fraction contained only traces of ATM. In contrast, the heavy membrane fraction, which mainly contained mitochondrial components, was enriched in ATM and active ATM, suggesting that the oxidative activation of ATM occurs in mitochondria and not in peroxisomes. In Rho 0-Hep G2 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA and functional mitochondria, ATM failed to respond to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. These findings strongly suggest that ATM can be activated in response to oxidative stress in mitochondria and that this occurs in a DDR-independent manner.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)
  2. (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22416246
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 443; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CENTRIFUGATION; DETERGENTS; DNA; DNA DAMAGES; FRACTIONATION; HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; MEMBRANES; MITOCHONDRIA; OXIDATION; PROTEINS; SERINE; STRESSES; THREONINE; VISIBLE RADIATION