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Title: Nuclear-dominated accretion flows in two dimensions – II. Ejecta dynamics and nucleosynthesis for CO and ONe white dwarfs

Abstract

We study mass ejection from accretion discs formed in the merger of a white dwarf with a neutron star or black hole. These discs are mostly radiatively inefficient and support nuclear fusion reactions, with ensuing outflows and electromagnetic transients. Here we perform time-dependent, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of these discs including a physical equation of state, viscous angular momentum transport, a coupled 19-isotope nuclear network, and self-gravity. We find no detonations in any of the configurations studied. Our global models extend from the central object to radii much larger than the disc. We evolve these global models for several orbits, as well as alternate versions with an excised inner boundary to much longer times. We obtain robust outflows, with a broad velocity distribution in the range 102–104 km s-1. The outflow composition is mostly that of the initial white dwarf, with burning products mixed in at the $${\lesssim } 10\rm {-}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$$ level by mass, including up to ~10-2 M⊙ of 56Ni. These heavier elements (plus 4He) are ejected within ≲ 40° of the rotation axis, and should have higher average velocities than the lighter elements that make up the white dwarf. These results are in broad agreement with previous one- and two-dimensional studies, and point to these systems as progenitors of rapidly rising (~ few day) transients. If accretion on to the central BH/NS powers a relativistic jet, these events could be accompanied by high-energy transients with peak luminosities ~1047–1050 erg s-1 and peak durations of up to several minutes, possibly accounting for events like CDF-S XT2.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]
  1. Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
  2. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  3. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1577633
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 488; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Astronomy & Astrophysics; accretion, accretion discs; hydrodynamics; nuclear reactions; nucleosynthesis; abundances; supernovae: general; white dwarfs; stars: winds, outflows

Citation Formats

Fernández, Rodrigo, Margalit, Ben, and Metzger, Brian D. Nuclear-dominated accretion flows in two dimensions – II. Ejecta dynamics and nucleosynthesis for CO and ONe white dwarfs. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1701.
Fernández, Rodrigo, Margalit, Ben, & Metzger, Brian D. Nuclear-dominated accretion flows in two dimensions – II. Ejecta dynamics and nucleosynthesis for CO and ONe white dwarfs. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1701.
Fernández, Rodrigo, Margalit, Ben, and Metzger, Brian D. Thu . "Nuclear-dominated accretion flows in two dimensions – II. Ejecta dynamics and nucleosynthesis for CO and ONe white dwarfs". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stz1701.
@article{osti_1577633,
title = {Nuclear-dominated accretion flows in two dimensions – II. Ejecta dynamics and nucleosynthesis for CO and ONe white dwarfs},
author = {Fernández, Rodrigo and Margalit, Ben and Metzger, Brian D.},
abstractNote = {We study mass ejection from accretion discs formed in the merger of a white dwarf with a neutron star or black hole. These discs are mostly radiatively inefficient and support nuclear fusion reactions, with ensuing outflows and electromagnetic transients. Here we perform time-dependent, axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of these discs including a physical equation of state, viscous angular momentum transport, a coupled 19-isotope nuclear network, and self-gravity. We find no detonations in any of the configurations studied. Our global models extend from the central object to radii much larger than the disc. We evolve these global models for several orbits, as well as alternate versions with an excised inner boundary to much longer times. We obtain robust outflows, with a broad velocity distribution in the range 102–104 km s-1. The outflow composition is mostly that of the initial white dwarf, with burning products mixed in at the ${\lesssim } 10\rm {-}30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ level by mass, including up to ~10-2 M⊙ of 56Ni. These heavier elements (plus 4He) are ejected within ≲ 40° of the rotation axis, and should have higher average velocities than the lighter elements that make up the white dwarf. These results are in broad agreement with previous one- and two-dimensional studies, and point to these systems as progenitors of rapidly rising (~ few day) transients. If accretion on to the central BH/NS powers a relativistic jet, these events could be accompanied by high-energy transients with peak luminosities ~1047–1050 erg s-1 and peak durations of up to several minutes, possibly accounting for events like CDF-S XT2.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stz1701},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 1,
volume = 488,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {6}
}

Journal Article:
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Works referenced in this record:

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Tidal Disruption and Ignition of White Dwarfs by Moderately Massive Black Holes
journal, March 2009


A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star merger
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Electromagnetic Signatures of Neutron Star Mergers in the Advanced LIGO Era
journal, October 2016


Long-term GRMHD simulations of neutron star merger accretion discs: implications for electromagnetic counterparts
journal, October 2018

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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, Issue 3
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Outflows from accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin
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  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2112

Merger of a white dwarf–neutron star binary to 10 29 carat diamonds: origin of the pulsar planets
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The ultracompact nature of the black hole candidate X-ray binary 47 Tuc X9
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  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx166

The demographics of neutron star – white dwarf mergers: Rates, delay-time distributions, and progenitors
journal, November 2018


A new type of long gamma-ray burst
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On the theory of Type I supernovae
journal, May 1979

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The dynamical stability of differentially rotating discs with constant specific angular momentum
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Pulsar Binary Birthrates with Spin-Opening Angle Correlations
journal, April 2010


Hydrodynamical non-radiative accretion flows in two dimensions
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A fast-evolving luminous transient discovered by K2/Kepler
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Masses and Orbital Inclinations of Planets in the PSR B1257+12 System
journal, June 2003

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Analytic Approximations to the Mass-Radius Relation and Energy of Zero-Temperature Stars
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Delayed outflows from black hole accretion tori following neutron star binary coalescence
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Neutron star–white dwarf mergers: early evolution, physical properties, and outcomes
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  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz316

TYPE Iax SUPERNOVAE: A NEW CLASS OF STELLAR EXPLOSION
journal, March 2013


Nucleosynthesis in advective accretion disc and outflow: possible explanation for overabundances in winds from X-ray binaries
journal, April 2019

  • Datta, Sudeb Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz952

Numerical Simulation of hot Accretion Flows. i. a Large Radial Dynamical Range and the Density Profile of Accretion flow
journal, December 2012


Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star
journal, June 2016

  • Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1410

The structure and fate of white dwarf merger remnants
journal, December 2013

  • Dan, Marius; Rosswog, Stephan; Brüggen, Marcus
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1766

Supernova Light Curves Powered by Fallback Accretion
journal, July 2013


Calcium-Rich gap Transients in the Remote Outskirts of Galaxies
journal, August 2012


Nuclear Dominated Accretion Flows in two Dimensions. i. Torus Evolution with Parametric Microphysics
journal, January 2013


A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion
journal, May 2010

  • Perets, H. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P. A.
  • Nature, Vol. 465, Issue 7296
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature09056

Approximations to the radii of Roche lobes
journal, May 1983

  • Eggleton, P. P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 268
  • DOI: 10.1086/160960

Confirmation of Earth-Mass Planets Orbiting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1257 + 12
journal, April 1994


The Accuracy, Consistency, and Speed of an Electron‐Positron Equation of State Based on Table Interpolation of the Helmholtz Free Energy
journal, February 2000

  • Timmes, F. X.; Swesty, F. Douglas
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 126, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/313304

Optical Thermonuclear Transients from Tidal Compression of White Dwarfs as Tracers of the low end of the Massive Black hole mass Function
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Modified Newtonian Potentials for the Description of Relativistic Effects in Accretion Disks around Black Holes
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Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma‐Ray Bursts
journal, August 1999

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Presupernova evolution of massive stars
journal, October 1978

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The Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations
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Merger of binary white dwarf–neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity
journal, November 2011


Neutrino Energy Loss in Stellar Interiors. VII. Pair, Photo-, Plasma, Bremsstrahlung, and Recombination Neutrino Processes
journal, January 1996

  • Itoh, Naoki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akinori
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Integration of Nuclear Reaction Networks for Stellar Hydrodynamics
journal, September 1999

  • Timmes, F. X.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 124, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/313257

The Probability Distribution Of Binary Pulsar Coalescence Rates. II. Neutron Star–White Dwarf Binaries
journal, December 2004

  • Kim, Chunglee; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Lorimer, Duncan R.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 616, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/424954

Rapidly Evolving and Luminous Transients from Pan-Starrs1
journal, September 2014


Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
journal, November 2008


Hot Accretion Flows Around Black Holes
journal, August 2014


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Simulating self-gravitating hydrodynamic flows
    journal, August 1995


    The Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations
    journal, April 1984


    Extensible component-based architecture for FLASH, a massively parallel, multiphysics simulation code
    journal, October 2009


    A planetary system around the millisecond pulsar PSR1257 + 12
    journal, January 1992

    • Wolszczan, A.; Frail, D. A.
    • Nature, Vol. 355, Issue 6356
    • DOI: 10.1038/355145a0

    A faint type of supernova from a white dwarf with a helium-rich companion
    journal, May 2010

    • Perets, H. B.; Gal-Yam, A.; Mazzali, P. A.
    • Nature, Vol. 465, Issue 7296
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature09056

    A fast-evolving luminous transient discovered by K2/Kepler
    journal, March 2018


    A magnetar-powered X-ray transient as the aftermath of a binary neutron-star merger
    journal, April 2019


    Hydrodynamical non-radiative accretion flows in two dimensions
    journal, December 1999

    • Stone, James M.; Pringle, James E.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 310, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-8711.1999.03024.x

    The demographics of neutron star – white dwarf mergers: Rates, delay-time distributions, and progenitors
    journal, November 2018


    Analytic Approximations to the Mass-Radius Relation and Energy of Zero-Temperature Stars
    journal, July 1972

    • Nauenberg, Michael
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 175
    • DOI: 10.1086/151568

    Presupernova evolution of massive stars
    journal, October 1978

    • Weaver, T. A.; Zimmerman, G. B.; Woosley, S. E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 225
    • DOI: 10.1086/156569

    Approximations to the radii of Roche lobes
    journal, May 1983

    • Eggleton, P. P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 268
    • DOI: 10.1086/160960

    Modified Newtonian Potentials for the Description of Relativistic Effects in Accretion Disks around Black Holes
    journal, April 1996

    • Artemova, I. V.; Bjoernsson, G.; Novikov, I. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
    • DOI: 10.1086/177084

    On the theory of Type I supernovae
    journal, May 1979

    • Arnett, W. D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 230
    • DOI: 10.1086/182957

    Neutrino Energy Loss in Stellar Interiors. VII. Pair, Photo-, Plasma, Bremsstrahlung, and Recombination Neutrino Processes
    journal, January 1996

    • Itoh, Naoki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Akinori
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 102
    • DOI: 10.1086/192264

    Merging White Dwarf/Black Hole Binaries and Gamma‐Ray Bursts
    journal, August 1999

    • Fryer, Chris L.; Woosley, S. E.; Herant, Marc
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 520, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/307467

    Integration of Nuclear Reaction Networks for Stellar Hydrodynamics
    journal, September 1999

    • Timmes, F. X.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 124, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/313257

    The Accuracy, Consistency, and Speed of an Electron‐Positron Equation of State Based on Table Interpolation of the Helmholtz Free Energy
    journal, February 2000

    • Timmes, F. X.; Swesty, F. Douglas
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 126, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/313304

    FLASH: An Adaptive Mesh Hydrodynamics Code for Modeling Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes
    journal, November 2000

    • Fryxell, B.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 131, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/317361

    Masses and Orbital Inclinations of Planets in the PSR B1257+12 System
    journal, June 2003

    • Konacki, Maciej; Wolszczan, Alex
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 591, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/377093

    The Probability Distribution Of Binary Pulsar Coalescence Rates. II. Neutron Star–White Dwarf Binaries
    journal, December 2004

    • Kim, Chunglee; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Lorimer, Duncan R.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 616, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/424954

    The dynamical stability of differentially rotating discs with constant specific angular momentum
    journal, June 1984

    • Papaloizou, J. C. B.; Pringle, J. E.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 208, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/208.4.721

    Delayed outflows from black hole accretion tori following neutron star binary coalescence
    journal, August 2013

    • Fernández, Rodrigo; Metzger, Brian D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 435, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1312

    The structure and fate of white dwarf merger remnants
    journal, December 2013

    • Dan, Marius; Rosswog, Stephan; Brüggen, Marcus
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 438, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stt1766

    Outflows from accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin
    journal, November 2014

    • Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 446, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stu2112

    Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star
    journal, June 2016

    • Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 461, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw1410

    Merger of a white dwarf–neutron star binary to 10 29 carat diamonds: origin of the pulsar planets
    journal, October 2016

    • Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 465, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw2640

    The ultracompact nature of the black hole candidate X-ray binary 47 Tuc X9
    journal, February 2017

    • Bahramian, Arash; Heinke, Craig O.; Tudor, Vlad
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 467, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx166

    Mass transfer in white dwarf–neutron star binaries
    journal, February 2017

    • Bobrick, Alexey; Davies, Melvyn B.; Church, Ross P.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 467, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stx312

    Long-term GRMHD simulations of neutron star merger accretion discs: implications for electromagnetic counterparts
    journal, October 2018

    • Fernández, Rodrigo; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Quataert, Eliot
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 482, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty2932

    Tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a black hole: the diversity of nucleosynthesis, explosion energy, and the fate of debris streams
    journal, March 2018

    • Kawana, Kojiro; Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshida, Naoki
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 477, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/sty842

    Neutron star–white dwarf mergers: early evolution, physical properties, and outcomes
    journal, January 2019

    • Zenati, Yossef; Perets, Hagai B.; Toonen, Silvia
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz316

    Nucleosynthesis in advective accretion disc and outflow: possible explanation for overabundances in winds from X-ray binaries
    journal, April 2019

    • Datta, Sudeb Ranjan; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz952

    A new type of long gamma-ray burst
    journal, January 2007


    Confirmation of Earth-Mass Planets Orbiting the Millisecond Pulsar PSR B1257 + 12
    journal, April 1994


    Hot Accretion Flows Around Black Holes
    journal, August 2014


    Electromagnetic Signatures of Neutron Star Mergers in the Advanced LIGO Era
    journal, October 2016


    Binary and Millisecond Pulsars
    journal, November 2008