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Title: The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry

Abstract

The E and B Experiment (EBEX) was a long-duration balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that flew over Antarctica in 2012. We describe the experiment's optical system, receiver, and polarimetric method and discuss their in-flight performance. EBEX had three frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. To make effective use of limited mass and space, we created a 115 cm 2 sr high-throughput optical system that had two ambient temperature mirrors and four antireflection-coated polyethylene lenses per focal plane. All frequency bands shared the same optical train. Polarimetry was achieved with a continuously rotating achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) that was levitated with a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). This is the first use of an SMB in astrophysics. Rotation stability was 0.45% over a period of 10 hr, and angular position accuracy was 0$$^{°}_{.}$$1. The measured modulation efficiency was above 90% for all bands. To our knowledge the 109% fractional bandwidth of the AHWP was the broadest implemented to date. The receiver, composed of one lens and the AHWP at a temperature of 4 K, the polarizing grid and other lenses at 1 K, and the two focal planes at 0.25 K, performed according to specifications, giving focal plane temperature stability with a fluctuation power spectrum that had a 1/f knee at 2 mHz. EBEX was the first balloon-borne instrument to implement technologies characteristic of modern CMB polarimeters, including high-throughput optical systems, and large arrays of transition edge sensor bolometric detectors with multiplexed readouts.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
The EBEX Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1544087
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online); Journal Volume: 239; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society/IOP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; balloons; cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; instrumentation: polarimeters; polarization

Citation Formats

Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hubmayr, Johannes, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Matsumura, Tomotake, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Sagiv, Ilan, Savini, Giorgio, Spencer, Locke, Tucker, Carole, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, and Zilic, Kyle. The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae434.
Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hubmayr, Johannes, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Matsumura, Tomotake, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Sagiv, Ilan, Savini, Giorgio, Spencer, Locke, Tucker, Carole, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, & Zilic, Kyle. The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae434.
Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hubmayr, Johannes, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Matsumura, Tomotake, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Sagiv, Ilan, Savini, Giorgio, Spencer, Locke, Tucker, Carole, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, and Zilic, Kyle. Tue . "The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae434. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1544087.
@article{osti_1544087,
title = {The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Optics, Receiver, and Polarimetry},
author = {Aboobaker, Asad M. and Ade, Peter and Araujo, Derek and Aubin, François and Baccigalupi, Carlo and Bao, Chaoyun and Chapman, Daniel and Didier, Joy and Dobbs, Matt and Geach, Christopher and Grainger, Will and Hanany, Shaul and Helson, Kyle and Hillbrand, Seth and Hubmayr, Johannes and Jaffe, Andrew and Johnson, Bradley and Jones, Terry and Klein, Jeff and Korotkov, Andrei and Lee, Adrian and Levinson, Lorne and Limon, Michele and MacDermid, Kevin and Matsumura, Tomotake and Miller, Amber D. and Milligan, Michael and Raach, Kate and Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt and Sagiv, Ilan and Savini, Giorgio and Spencer, Locke and Tucker, Carole and Tucker, Gregory S. and Westbrook, Benjamin and Young, Karl and Zilic, Kyle},
abstractNote = {The E and B Experiment (EBEX) was a long-duration balloon-borne cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter that flew over Antarctica in 2012. We describe the experiment's optical system, receiver, and polarimetric method and discuss their in-flight performance. EBEX had three frequency bands centered on 150, 250, and 410 GHz. To make effective use of limited mass and space, we created a 115 cm2 sr high-throughput optical system that had two ambient temperature mirrors and four antireflection-coated polyethylene lenses per focal plane. All frequency bands shared the same optical train. Polarimetry was achieved with a continuously rotating achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) that was levitated with a superconducting magnetic bearing (SMB). This is the first use of an SMB in astrophysics. Rotation stability was 0.45% over a period of 10 hr, and angular position accuracy was 0$^{°}_{.}$1. The measured modulation efficiency was above 90% for all bands. To our knowledge the 109% fractional bandwidth of the AHWP was the broadest implemented to date. The receiver, composed of one lens and the AHWP at a temperature of 4 K, the polarizing grid and other lenses at 1 K, and the two focal planes at 0.25 K, performed according to specifications, giving focal plane temperature stability with a fluctuation power spectrum that had a 1/f knee at 2 mHz. EBEX was the first balloon-borne instrument to implement technologies characteristic of modern CMB polarimeters, including high-throughput optical systems, and large arrays of transition edge sensor bolometric detectors with multiplexed readouts.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4365/aae434},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 239,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

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