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Title: The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Detectors and Readout

Abstract

EBEX was a long-duration balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The experiment had three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz and was the first to use a kilopixel array of transition edge sensor bolometers aboard a balloon platform. We determine the design and characterization of the array and the readout system. From the lowest to highest frequency, the median measured detectors' average thermal conductances were 39, 53, and 63 pW/K, the medians of transition temperatures were 0.45, 0.48, and 0.47 K, and the medians of normal resistances were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.4 Ω; moreover, we give the measured distributions. With the exception of the thermal conductance at 150 GHz, all measured values are within 30% of their design. We measure median low-loop-gain time constants τ 0 = 88, 46, and 57 ms. Two measurements of bolometer absorption efficiency gave results consistent within 10% and showing high (~0.9) efficiency at 150 GHz and medium (~0.35 and ~0.25) efficiency at the two higher bands. We calculate a median total optical power absorbed of 3.6, 5.3, and 5.0 pW. EBEX pioneered the use of the digital version of the frequency domain multiplexing system. We multiplexed the bias and readout of 16 bolometers onto two wires. The median per-detector noise-equivalent temperatures are 400, 920, and 14,500 $$\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{{\rm{cmb}}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$$. We compare these values to our preflight predictions and to a previous balloon payload. We report on the sources of excess noise and the path for a future payload to make full use of the balloon environment.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
The EBEX Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1544089
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online); Journal Volume: 239; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4365
Publisher:
American Astronomical Society/IOP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; balloons; cosmic background radiation; cosmology: observations; instrumentation: detectors; instrumentation: polarimeters

Citation Formats

Abitbol, Maximilian, Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Feeney, Stephen M., Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hilton, Gene, Hubmayr, Johannes, Irwin, Kent, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Reintsema, Carl, Sagiv, Ilan, Smecher, Graeme, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, and Zilic, Kyle. The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Detectors and Readout. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae436.
Abitbol, Maximilian, Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Feeney, Stephen M., Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hilton, Gene, Hubmayr, Johannes, Irwin, Kent, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Reintsema, Carl, Sagiv, Ilan, Smecher, Graeme, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, & Zilic, Kyle. The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Detectors and Readout. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae436.
Abitbol, Maximilian, Aboobaker, Asad M., Ade, Peter, Araujo, Derek, Aubin, François, Baccigalupi, Carlo, Bao, Chaoyun, Chapman, Daniel, Didier, Joy, Dobbs, Matt, Feeney, Stephen M., Geach, Christopher, Grainger, Will, Hanany, Shaul, Helson, Kyle, Hillbrand, Seth, Hilton, Gene, Hubmayr, Johannes, Irwin, Kent, Jaffe, Andrew, Johnson, Bradley, Jones, Terry, Klein, Jeff, Korotkov, Andrei, Lee, Adrian, Levinson, Lorne, Limon, Michele, MacDermid, Kevin, Miller, Amber D., Milligan, Michael, Raach, Kate, Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt, Reintsema, Carl, Sagiv, Ilan, Smecher, Graeme, Tucker, Gregory S., Westbrook, Benjamin, Young, Karl, and Zilic, Kyle. Tue . "The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Detectors and Readout". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aae436. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1544089.
@article{osti_1544089,
title = {The EBEX Balloon-borne Experiment—Detectors and Readout},
author = {Abitbol, Maximilian and Aboobaker, Asad M. and Ade, Peter and Araujo, Derek and Aubin, François and Baccigalupi, Carlo and Bao, Chaoyun and Chapman, Daniel and Didier, Joy and Dobbs, Matt and Feeney, Stephen M. and Geach, Christopher and Grainger, Will and Hanany, Shaul and Helson, Kyle and Hillbrand, Seth and Hilton, Gene and Hubmayr, Johannes and Irwin, Kent and Jaffe, Andrew and Johnson, Bradley and Jones, Terry and Klein, Jeff and Korotkov, Andrei and Lee, Adrian and Levinson, Lorne and Limon, Michele and MacDermid, Kevin and Miller, Amber D. and Milligan, Michael and Raach, Kate and Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt and Reintsema, Carl and Sagiv, Ilan and Smecher, Graeme and Tucker, Gregory S. and Westbrook, Benjamin and Young, Karl and Zilic, Kyle},
abstractNote = {EBEX was a long-duration balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The experiment had three frequency bands centered at 150, 250, and 410 GHz and was the first to use a kilopixel array of transition edge sensor bolometers aboard a balloon platform. We determine the design and characterization of the array and the readout system. From the lowest to highest frequency, the median measured detectors' average thermal conductances were 39, 53, and 63 pW/K, the medians of transition temperatures were 0.45, 0.48, and 0.47 K, and the medians of normal resistances were 1.9, 1.5, and 1.4 Ω; moreover, we give the measured distributions. With the exception of the thermal conductance at 150 GHz, all measured values are within 30% of their design. We measure median low-loop-gain time constants τ 0 = 88, 46, and 57 ms. Two measurements of bolometer absorption efficiency gave results consistent within 10% and showing high (~0.9) efficiency at 150 GHz and medium (~0.35 and ~0.25) efficiency at the two higher bands. We calculate a median total optical power absorbed of 3.6, 5.3, and 5.0 pW. EBEX pioneered the use of the digital version of the frequency domain multiplexing system. We multiplexed the bias and readout of 16 bolometers onto two wires. The median per-detector noise-equivalent temperatures are 400, 920, and 14,500 $\mu {{\rm{K}}}_{{\rm{cmb}}}\sqrt{{\rm{s}}}$. We compare these values to our preflight predictions and to a previous balloon payload. We report on the sources of excess noise and the path for a future payload to make full use of the balloon environment.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4365/aae436},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Supplement Series (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 239,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

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