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Title: Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets

Abstract

Solid ferromagnetic materials are rigid in shape and cannot be reconfigured. Ferrofluids, although reconfigurable, are paramagnetic at room temperature and lose their magnetization when the applied magnetic field is removed. Here, we show a reversible paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transformation of ferrofluid droplets by the jamming of a monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles assembled at the water-oil interface. These ferromagnetic liquid droplets exhibit a finite coercivity and remanent magnetization. They can be easily reconfigured into different shapes while preserving the magnetic properties of solid ferromagnets with classic north-south dipole interactions. Finally, their translational and rotational motions can be actuated remotely and precisely by an external magnetic field, inspiring studies on active matter, energy-dissipative assemblies, and programmable liquid constructs.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division
OSTI Identifier:
1543067
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1592413
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Science Journal Volume: 365 Journal Issue: 6450; Journal ID: ISSN 0036-8075
Publisher:
AAAS
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Liu, Xubo, Kent, Noah, Ceballos, Alejandro, Streubel, Robert, Jiang, Yufeng, Chai, Yu, Kim, Paul Y., Forth, Joe, Hellman, Frances, Shi, Shaowei, Wang, Dong, Helms, Brett A., Ashby, Paul D., Fischer, Peter, and Russell, Thomas P.. Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw8719.
Liu, Xubo, Kent, Noah, Ceballos, Alejandro, Streubel, Robert, Jiang, Yufeng, Chai, Yu, Kim, Paul Y., Forth, Joe, Hellman, Frances, Shi, Shaowei, Wang, Dong, Helms, Brett A., Ashby, Paul D., Fischer, Peter, & Russell, Thomas P.. Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets. United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw8719
Liu, Xubo, Kent, Noah, Ceballos, Alejandro, Streubel, Robert, Jiang, Yufeng, Chai, Yu, Kim, Paul Y., Forth, Joe, Hellman, Frances, Shi, Shaowei, Wang, Dong, Helms, Brett A., Ashby, Paul D., Fischer, Peter, and Russell, Thomas P.. Thu . "Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets". United States. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw8719.
@article{osti_1543067,
title = {Reconfigurable ferromagnetic liquid droplets},
author = {Liu, Xubo and Kent, Noah and Ceballos, Alejandro and Streubel, Robert and Jiang, Yufeng and Chai, Yu and Kim, Paul Y. and Forth, Joe and Hellman, Frances and Shi, Shaowei and Wang, Dong and Helms, Brett A. and Ashby, Paul D. and Fischer, Peter and Russell, Thomas P.},
abstractNote = {Solid ferromagnetic materials are rigid in shape and cannot be reconfigured. Ferrofluids, although reconfigurable, are paramagnetic at room temperature and lose their magnetization when the applied magnetic field is removed. Here, we show a reversible paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transformation of ferrofluid droplets by the jamming of a monolayer of magnetic nanoparticles assembled at the water-oil interface. These ferromagnetic liquid droplets exhibit a finite coercivity and remanent magnetization. They can be easily reconfigured into different shapes while preserving the magnetic properties of solid ferromagnets with classic north-south dipole interactions. Finally, their translational and rotational motions can be actuated remotely and precisely by an external magnetic field, inspiring studies on active matter, energy-dissipative assemblies, and programmable liquid constructs.},
doi = {10.1126/science.aaw8719},
journal = {Science},
number = 6450,
volume = 365,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {7}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaw8719

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Tunable transformation of a paramagnetic FF into an FLD by the interfacial jamming of MNP-surfactants. (A) Magnetic hysteresis loops of droplets with (red line) and without (black line) an interfacial layer of jammed MNP-surfactants measured with a vibrating sample magnetometer. Two schematics of aqueous FF and FLD, containingmore » Fe3O4-CO2H MNPs (0.5 g L–1) at pH 4.5, immersed in toluene without and with POSS-NH2 ligands (1.0 g L-1). (B) Hysteresis loops of individual 5-mL aqueous droplets, with 0.5 g L–1 and 0.05 g L–1 of Fe3O4-CO2H MNPs at different pH, immersed in 0.01 g L–1 ligand solution. Surface coverage (SC) of droplets is ~7 to ~20% where MNPS assemblies are not jammed. (C) Hysteresis loops of single, jammed aqueous droplets with 0.5 g L–1 of MNPs at pH 4.5 immersed in a 1.0 g L–1 solution of POSS-NH2 in toluene and hysteresis loops of the same system after being sonicated (figs. S1 and S2). (D) Mr and Ms of the droplets as a function of droplet volume. In the inset, the remanence ratio Mr/Ms as a function of initial droplet volume (single droplet or droplet sonicated into multiple smaller droplets) remains constant at ~0.25. FF, ferrofluid; FLD, ferromagnetic liquid droplet.« less

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    Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.