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Title: Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems

Abstract

In the growing field of capacitive deionization (CDI), a number of performance metrics have emerged to describe the desalination process. Unfortunately, the separation conditions under which these metrics are measured are often not specified, resulting in optimal performance at minimal removal. Here in this paper we outline a system of performance metrics and reporting conditions that resolves this issue. Our proposed system is based on volumetric energy consumption (Wh/m3) and throughput productivity (L/h/m2) reported for a specific average concentration reduction, water recovery, and feed salinity. To facilitate and rationalize comparisons between devices, materials, and operation modes, we propose a nominal standard separation of removing 5 mM from a 20 mM NaCl feed solution at 50% water recovery. We propose this particular separation as a standard, but emphasize that the rationale presented here applies irrespective of separation details. Using our proposed separation, we compare the desalination performance of a flow-through electrode (fte-CDI) cell and a flow between membrane (fb-MCDI) device, showing how significantly different systems can be compared in terms of generally desirable desalination characteristics. In general, we find that performance analysis must be considered carefully so to not allow for ambiguous separation conditions or the maximization of one metric atmore » the expense of another. Additionally, for context and clarity, we discuss a number of important underlying performance indicators and cell characteristics that are not performance measures in and of themselves but can be examined to better understand differences in performance.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ORCiD logo; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1531179
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1513122
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-749416
Journal ID: ISSN 0043-1354; S0043135418308911; PII: S0043135418308911
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 18-ERD-024
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Water Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Water Research Journal Volume: 152 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0043-1354
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Capacitive desalination; Capacitive deionization; CDI; Performance

Citation Formats

Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., and Stadermann, Michael. Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems. United Kingdom: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074.
Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., & Stadermann, Michael. Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems. United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074
Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., and Stadermann, Michael. Mon . "Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems". United Kingdom. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074.
@article{osti_1531179,
title = {Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems},
author = {Hawks, Steven A. and Ramachandran, Ashwin and Porada, Slawomir and Campbell, Patrick G. and Suss, Matthew E. and Biesheuvel, P. M. and Santiago, Juan G. and Stadermann, Michael},
abstractNote = {In the growing field of capacitive deionization (CDI), a number of performance metrics have emerged to describe the desalination process. Unfortunately, the separation conditions under which these metrics are measured are often not specified, resulting in optimal performance at minimal removal. Here in this paper we outline a system of performance metrics and reporting conditions that resolves this issue. Our proposed system is based on volumetric energy consumption (Wh/m3) and throughput productivity (L/h/m2) reported for a specific average concentration reduction, water recovery, and feed salinity. To facilitate and rationalize comparisons between devices, materials, and operation modes, we propose a nominal standard separation of removing 5 mM from a 20 mM NaCl feed solution at 50% water recovery. We propose this particular separation as a standard, but emphasize that the rationale presented here applies irrespective of separation details. Using our proposed separation, we compare the desalination performance of a flow-through electrode (fte-CDI) cell and a flow between membrane (fb-MCDI) device, showing how significantly different systems can be compared in terms of generally desirable desalination characteristics. In general, we find that performance analysis must be considered carefully so to not allow for ambiguous separation conditions or the maximization of one metric at the expense of another. Additionally, for context and clarity, we discuss a number of important underlying performance indicators and cell characteristics that are not performance measures in and of themselves but can be examined to better understand differences in performance.},
doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074},
journal = {Water Research},
number = C,
volume = 152,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: A pictogram illustrating how to objectively compare deionization performance. First, the separation conditions must be defined (water recovery, feed concentration, and concentration reduction), and then the desalination performance (energy consumption, throughput) can be compared. The tradeoff between energy consumption and throughput must be examined for equivalent separation conditions.more » The variables in the pictogram are defined below.« less

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Faradaic reactions in capacitive deionization for desalination and ion separation
journal, January 2019

  • Yu, Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ying
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta01264h

Faradaic reactions in capacitive deionization for desalination and ion separation
journal, January 2019

  • Yu, Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Ying
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 27
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta01264h

Rapid Inversion of Surface Charges in Heteroatom‐Doped Porous Carbon: A Route to Robust Electrochemical Desalination
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  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 30, Issue 9
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  • Liu, Zhenzhen; Xi, Wen; Li, Haibo
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  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ew00939f

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  • Younes, Hammad; Zou, Linda
  • Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ew01033e

Emerging investigator series: capacitive deionization for selective removal of nitrate and perchlorate: impacts of ion selectivity and operating constraints on treatment costs
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  • Hand, Steven; Cusick, Roland D.
  • Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ew01105f

Capacitive deionization and electrosorption: from desalination to ion management
journal, January 2020

  • Liang, Peng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Huang, Xia
  • Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1039/d0ew90004d

Assembly of Soft Electrodes and Ion Exchange Membranes for Capacitive Deionization
journal, September 2019

  • Ahualli, Silvia; Orozco-Barrera, Sergio; Fernández, María del Mar
  • Polymers, Vol. 11, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.3390/polym11101556