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Title: Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems

Abstract

In the growing field of capacitive deionization (CDI), a number of performance metrics have emerged to describe the desalination process. Unfortunately, the separation conditions under which these metrics are measured are often not specified, resulting in optimal performance at minimal removal. Here in this paper we outline a system of performance metrics and reporting conditions that resolves this issue. Our proposed system is based on volumetric energy consumption (Wh/m 3) and throughput productivity (L/h/m 2) reported for a specific average concentration reduction, water recovery, and feed salinity. To facilitate and rationalize comparisons between devices, materials, and operation modes, we propose a nominal standard separation of removing 5 mM from a 20 mM NaCl feed solution at 50% water recovery. We propose this particular separation as a standard, but emphasize that the rationale presented here applies irrespective of separation details. Using our proposed separation, we compare the desalination performance of a flow-through electrode (fte-CDI) cell and a flow between membrane (fb-MCDI) device, showing how significantly different systems can be compared in terms of generally desirable desalination characteristics. In general, we find that performance analysis must be considered carefully so to not allow for ambiguous separation conditions or the maximization of onemore » metric at the expense of another. Additionally, for context and clarity, we discuss a number of important underlying performance indicators and cell characteristics that are not performance measures in and of themselves but can be examined to better understand differences in performance.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics & Astronautics
  3. Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)
  4. Technion-Israel Inst. of Technology, Haifa (Israel)
  5. Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands)
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1531179
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1513122
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-749416
Journal ID: ISSN 0043-1354; 934582
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC52-07NA27344; 18-ERD-024
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Water Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 152; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0043-1354
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Capacitive desalination; Capacitive deionization; CDI; Performance

Citation Formats

Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., and Stadermann, Michael. Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074.
Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., & Stadermann, Michael. Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems. United States. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074.
Hawks, Steven A., Ramachandran, Ashwin, Porada, Slawomir, Campbell, Patrick G., Suss, Matthew E., Biesheuvel, P. M., Santiago, Juan G., and Stadermann, Michael. Mon . "Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems". United States. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074.
@article{osti_1531179,
title = {Performance metrics for the objective assessment of capacitive deionization systems},
author = {Hawks, Steven A. and Ramachandran, Ashwin and Porada, Slawomir and Campbell, Patrick G. and Suss, Matthew E. and Biesheuvel, P. M. and Santiago, Juan G. and Stadermann, Michael},
abstractNote = {In the growing field of capacitive deionization (CDI), a number of performance metrics have emerged to describe the desalination process. Unfortunately, the separation conditions under which these metrics are measured are often not specified, resulting in optimal performance at minimal removal. Here in this paper we outline a system of performance metrics and reporting conditions that resolves this issue. Our proposed system is based on volumetric energy consumption (Wh/m3) and throughput productivity (L/h/m2) reported for a specific average concentration reduction, water recovery, and feed salinity. To facilitate and rationalize comparisons between devices, materials, and operation modes, we propose a nominal standard separation of removing 5 mM from a 20 mM NaCl feed solution at 50% water recovery. We propose this particular separation as a standard, but emphasize that the rationale presented here applies irrespective of separation details. Using our proposed separation, we compare the desalination performance of a flow-through electrode (fte-CDI) cell and a flow between membrane (fb-MCDI) device, showing how significantly different systems can be compared in terms of generally desirable desalination characteristics. In general, we find that performance analysis must be considered carefully so to not allow for ambiguous separation conditions or the maximization of one metric at the expense of another. Additionally, for context and clarity, we discuss a number of important underlying performance indicators and cell characteristics that are not performance measures in and of themselves but can be examined to better understand differences in performance.},
doi = {10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074},
journal = {Water Research},
number = C,
volume = 152,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.10.074

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Cited by: 8 works
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