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Title: Hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of high pressure cavitating fluids in aluminum nozzles

Abstract

X-rays are frequently used to study the internal geometry of dense objects, and to measure the density of multiphase flows. However, quantitatively measuring fluid density inside a metallic object such as a high pressure spray nozzle is difficult. X-rays of sufficiently high energy to penetrate a metal object are not appreciably absorbed by the fluid inside. This requires the use of plastic or beryllium test sections, which are not suited to high pressure conditions. We present a high-energy X-ray fluorescence technique which can overcome this problem. The experiments were conducted at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A hydrocarbon fluid was seeded with cerium nanoparticles. The fluid was pumped at high pressure through aluminum nozzles with inner diameters of 0.36-0.90 mm and wall thicknesses of 2-3 mm. A collimated, monochromatic 42.5 keV X-ray beam excited K-edge fluorescence from the cerium. The K-alpha emission lines at 34-35 keV were recorded by a cryogenic germanium detector. Changes in fluid density due to cavitation of the liquid inside the nozzle were measured by raster scanning the nozzle across the beam. A spatial resolution of 20 x 20 mu m(2) was achieved with a slitted beam, which wasmore » improved to 5 x 10 mu m(2) with X-ray focusing mirrors. The uncertainty in the path-integrated vapor fraction was 30-40 mu m at 95% confidence. A limitation of this approach is that for low vapor pressure fluids, the nanoparticles increase the vapor pressure of the fluid and act as additional nucleation sites. These experiments demonstrate a path forward for measurements of multiphase flows inside metal components under conditions that are not feasible in optically accessible materials.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Australian Research Council; USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1502502
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
International Journal of Multiphase Flow
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0301-9322
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; cavitation; fluorescence; two-phase flow; x-ray

Citation Formats

Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Matusik, Katarzyna E., and Powell, Christopher F. Hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of high pressure cavitating fluids in aluminum nozzles. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.026.
Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Matusik, Katarzyna E., & Powell, Christopher F. Hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of high pressure cavitating fluids in aluminum nozzles. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.026.
Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Matusik, Katarzyna E., and Powell, Christopher F. Sat . "Hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of high pressure cavitating fluids in aluminum nozzles". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.026. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1502502.
@article{osti_1502502,
title = {Hard X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of high pressure cavitating fluids in aluminum nozzles},
author = {Duke, Daniel J. and Kastengren, Alan L. and Matusik, Katarzyna E. and Powell, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {X-rays are frequently used to study the internal geometry of dense objects, and to measure the density of multiphase flows. However, quantitatively measuring fluid density inside a metallic object such as a high pressure spray nozzle is difficult. X-rays of sufficiently high energy to penetrate a metal object are not appreciably absorbed by the fluid inside. This requires the use of plastic or beryllium test sections, which are not suited to high pressure conditions. We present a high-energy X-ray fluorescence technique which can overcome this problem. The experiments were conducted at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A hydrocarbon fluid was seeded with cerium nanoparticles. The fluid was pumped at high pressure through aluminum nozzles with inner diameters of 0.36-0.90 mm and wall thicknesses of 2-3 mm. A collimated, monochromatic 42.5 keV X-ray beam excited K-edge fluorescence from the cerium. The K-alpha emission lines at 34-35 keV were recorded by a cryogenic germanium detector. Changes in fluid density due to cavitation of the liquid inside the nozzle were measured by raster scanning the nozzle across the beam. A spatial resolution of 20 x 20 mu m(2) was achieved with a slitted beam, which was improved to 5 x 10 mu m(2) with X-ray focusing mirrors. The uncertainty in the path-integrated vapor fraction was 30-40 mu m at 95% confidence. A limitation of this approach is that for low vapor pressure fluids, the nanoparticles increase the vapor pressure of the fluid and act as additional nucleation sites. These experiments demonstrate a path forward for measurements of multiphase flows inside metal components under conditions that are not feasible in optically accessible materials.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2018.05.026},
journal = {International Journal of Multiphase Flow},
number = C,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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