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Title: X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation

Abstract

The dynamics of dissolved gas and cavitation are strongly coupled, yet these phenomena are difficult to measure in-situ. Both create voids in the fluid that can be difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present an application of X-ray fluorescence in which liquid density and total noncondensible gas concentration (both dissolved and nucleated) are simultaneously measured. The liquid phase is doped with 400 ppm of a bromine tracer, and dissolved air is removed and substituted with krypton. Fluorescent emission at X-ray wavelengths is simultaneously excited from the Br and Kr with a focused monochromatic X-ray beam from a synchrotron source. We measure the flow in a cavitating nozzle 0.5 mm in diameter. From Br fluorescence, total displacement of the liquid is measured. From Kr fluorescence, the mass fraction of both dissolved and nucleated gas is measured. Volumetric displacement of liquid due to both cavitation and gas precipitation can be separated through estimation of the local equilibrium dissolved mass fraction. The uncertainty in the line of sight projected densities of the liquid and gas phases is 4–6 %. The high fluorescence yields and energies of Br and Kr allow small mass fractions of gas to be measured, down to 10 -5,more » with an uncertainty of 8 %. Finally, these quantitative measurements complement existing optical diagnostic techniques and provide new insight into the diffusion of gas into cavitation bubbles, which can increase their internal density, pressure and lifetimes by orders of magnitude.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1349057
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Experiments in Fluids
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 57; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 0723-4864
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Matusik, Katarzyna E, and Powell, Christopher F. X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1007/s00348-016-2250-5.
Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Matusik, Katarzyna E, & Powell, Christopher F. X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation. United States. doi:10.1007/s00348-016-2250-5.
Duke, Daniel J., Kastengren, Alan L., Swantek, Andrew B., Matusik, Katarzyna E, and Powell, Christopher F. Wed . "X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation". United States. doi:10.1007/s00348-016-2250-5. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349057.
@article{osti_1349057,
title = {X-ray fluorescence measurements of dissolved gas and cavitation},
author = {Duke, Daniel J. and Kastengren, Alan L. and Swantek, Andrew B. and Matusik, Katarzyna E and Powell, Christopher F.},
abstractNote = {The dynamics of dissolved gas and cavitation are strongly coupled, yet these phenomena are difficult to measure in-situ. Both create voids in the fluid that can be difficult to distinguish. In this paper, we present an application of X-ray fluorescence in which liquid density and total noncondensible gas concentration (both dissolved and nucleated) are simultaneously measured. The liquid phase is doped with 400 ppm of a bromine tracer, and dissolved air is removed and substituted with krypton. Fluorescent emission at X-ray wavelengths is simultaneously excited from the Br and Kr with a focused monochromatic X-ray beam from a synchrotron source. We measure the flow in a cavitating nozzle 0.5 mm in diameter. From Br fluorescence, total displacement of the liquid is measured. From Kr fluorescence, the mass fraction of both dissolved and nucleated gas is measured. Volumetric displacement of liquid due to both cavitation and gas precipitation can be separated through estimation of the local equilibrium dissolved mass fraction. The uncertainty in the line of sight projected densities of the liquid and gas phases is 4–6 %. The high fluorescence yields and energies of Br and Kr allow small mass fractions of gas to be measured, down to 10-5, with an uncertainty of 8 %. Finally, these quantitative measurements complement existing optical diagnostic techniques and provide new insight into the diffusion of gas into cavitation bubbles, which can increase their internal density, pressure and lifetimes by orders of magnitude.},
doi = {10.1007/s00348-016-2250-5},
journal = {Experiments in Fluids},
number = 10,
volume = 57,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {9}
}

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