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Title: Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC–MS analysis was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis was carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least twofold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system,more » environmental response factors, protein synthesis, assembly, etc. In conclusion, GC–MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the β-ketoadipate pathway. The study provides an important basis for lignin degradation by bacteria.« less
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China). School of Environment and Safety Engineering; Guangdong Inst. of Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Culture Collection and Application
  2. Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China). School of Environment and Safety Engineering
  3. Guangdong Inst. of Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Culture Collection and Application
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.
  5. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Bioproducts, Sciences and Engineering Lab., Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834; PII: 735
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; EE0006112
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biotechnology for Biofuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834
BioMed Central
Research Org:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Country of Publication:
United States
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Alkaline lignin; Bacillus ligniniphilus L1; GC–MS; Proteomics
OSTI Identifier: