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Title: Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si 1–xGe x alloys

Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration and substrate stoichiometry on the electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si 1–xGe x alloys. Correlating the fraction of electrically active In atoms from Hall Effect measurements with the In atomic environment determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we observed the transition from electrically active, substitutional In at low In concentration to electrically inactive metallic In at high In concentration. The In solid-solubility limit has been quantified and was dependent on the Si 1–xGe x alloy stoichiometry; the solid-solubility limit increased as the Ge fraction increased. This result was consistent with density functional theory calculations of two In atoms in a Si 1–xGe x supercell that demonstrated that In–In pairing was energetically favorable for x ≲ 0.7 and energetically unfavorable for x ≳ 0.7. Transmission electron microscopy imaging further complemented the results described earlier with the In concentration and Si 1–xGe x alloy stoichiometry dependencies readily visible. We have demonstrated that low resistivity values can be achieved with In implantation in Si 1–xGe x alloys, and this combination of dopant and substrate represents an effective doping protocol.
Authors:
 [1] ; ORCiD logo [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ; ORCiD logo [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [1]
  1. Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)
  4. Australian Synchrotron, Clayton, VIC (Australia)
  5. Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)
  6. RMIT Univ., Melbourne (Australia)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
BNL-111933-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979; R&D Project: 20685
Grant/Contract Number:
SC00112704
Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-8979
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Research Org:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
BNL Program Development; USDOE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; dopant concentration; substrate stoichiometry; x-ray absorption spectroscopy; Hall Effect
OSTI Identifier:
1341515

Feng, Ruixing, Kremer, F., Sprouster, D. J., Mirzaei, S., Decoster, S., Glover, C. J., Medling, S. A., Hansen, J. L., Nylandsted-Larsen, A., Russo, S. P., and Ridgway, M. C.. Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys. United States: N. p., Web. doi:10.1063/1.4940046.
Feng, Ruixing, Kremer, F., Sprouster, D. J., Mirzaei, S., Decoster, S., Glover, C. J., Medling, S. A., Hansen, J. L., Nylandsted-Larsen, A., Russo, S. P., & Ridgway, M. C.. Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4940046.
Feng, Ruixing, Kremer, F., Sprouster, D. J., Mirzaei, S., Decoster, S., Glover, C. J., Medling, S. A., Hansen, J. L., Nylandsted-Larsen, A., Russo, S. P., and Ridgway, M. C.. 2016. "Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4940046. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1341515.
@article{osti_1341515,
title = {Electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys},
author = {Feng, Ruixing and Kremer, F. and Sprouster, D. J. and Mirzaei, S. and Decoster, S. and Glover, C. J. and Medling, S. A. and Hansen, J. L. and Nylandsted-Larsen, A. and Russo, S. P. and Ridgway, M. C.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report on the effects of dopant concentration and substrate stoichiometry on the electrical and structural properties of In-implanted Si1–xGex alloys. Correlating the fraction of electrically active In atoms from Hall Effect measurements with the In atomic environment determined by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, we observed the transition from electrically active, substitutional In at low In concentration to electrically inactive metallic In at high In concentration. The In solid-solubility limit has been quantified and was dependent on the Si1–xGex alloy stoichiometry; the solid-solubility limit increased as the Ge fraction increased. This result was consistent with density functional theory calculations of two In atoms in a Si1–xGex supercell that demonstrated that In–In pairing was energetically favorable for x ≲ 0.7 and energetically unfavorable for x ≳ 0.7. Transmission electron microscopy imaging further complemented the results described earlier with the In concentration and Si1–xGex alloy stoichiometry dependencies readily visible. We have demonstrated that low resistivity values can be achieved with In implantation in Si1–xGex alloys, and this combination of dopant and substrate represents an effective doping protocol.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4940046},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {1}
}