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Title: Current Thoughts on Reactive Element Effects in Alumina-Forming Systems: In Memory of John Stringer

In memory of John Stringer (1934–2014), one of the leaders in studying the reactive element (RE) effects, this paper reviews the current status of understanding of the effect of RE dopants on high-temperature oxidation behavior, with an emphasis on recent research related to deploying alumina-forming alloys and coatings with optimal performance in commercial systems. Additionally, to the well-known interaction between indigenous sulfur and RE additions, effects have been observed with C, N, and O found in commercial alloys and coatings. While there are many similarities between alumina-forming alloys and coatings, the latter bring additional complicating factors such as the effects of O incorporation during thermal spraying MCrAlY coatings, coating roughness, and heat treatments that must be considered in optimizing the beneficial dopant addition. We can see analogies between RE effects in alloys and in the substrates beneath diffusion M–Al coatings. Recently, there has been more interest in the influence of mixed oxidant environments, since these may modify the manifestation of the RE effect. Some thoughts are provided on optimizing the RE benefit and modeling oxidation of RE-doped alloys.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Julich Research Centre (Germany)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; NA 615-2
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Oxidation of Metals
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 1-2; Journal ID: ISSN 0030-770X
Research Org:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Advanced Manufacturing Office (EE-5A)
Country of Publication:
United States
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Reactive element effect; alumina forming alloys; coatings; thermal barrier coatings; review; effect of C, N, and O impurities
OSTI Identifier: