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Title: Effects of X-ray irradiation on natural killer (NK) cell system. II. Increased sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF)

Abstract

Irradiation with low-doses of X-rays of tumor cells elevated their susceptibility to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells in an accompanying paper. Cytotoxicity assays conducted at the single cell level revealed that X-ray irradiation of K562 cells did not affect the number of effector-target conjugates but increased the frequency of dead conjugated target cells. During interaction with K562 cells large granular lymphocytes released a soluble cytotoxic factor (NKCF) that killed the target cells. X-ray irradiation did not affect the NKCF stimulatory ability of K562 cells, while it elevated their sensitivity to the lytic effect of NKCF. In contrast to X-rays, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation of K562 cells did not elevate their NK sensitivity but rather reduced it. Treatment with mitomycin C produced no effect on NK sensitivity. These results indicate that X-ray irradiation elevates the target sensitivity to NKCF, which may be involved in the increased NK sensitivity, and that the X-ray effect may be different from that of UV radiation or DNA synthesis inhibition.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
6992753
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology; (USA); Journal Volume: 11:2-3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; LYMPHOCYTES; CELL PROLIFERATION; TUMOR CELLS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; LYSIS; MITOMYCIN; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; X RADIATION; ANIMAL CELLS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; ANTIBIOTICS; ANTIMITOTIC DRUGS; ANTINEOPLASTIC DRUGS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BLOOD; BLOOD CELLS; BODY FLUIDS; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; DRUGS; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; IONIZING RADIATIONS; LEUKOCYTES; MATERIALS; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIATIONS; SOMATIC CELLS; 560120* - Radiation Effects on Biochemicals, Cells, & Tissue Culture

Citation Formats

Uchida, A., Mizutani, Y., Nagamuta, M., and Ikenaga, M. Effects of X-ray irradiation on natural killer (NK) cell system. II. Increased sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF). United States: N. p., 1989. Web. doi:10.3109/08923978909005382.
Uchida, A., Mizutani, Y., Nagamuta, M., & Ikenaga, M. Effects of X-ray irradiation on natural killer (NK) cell system. II. Increased sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF). United States. doi:10.3109/08923978909005382.
Uchida, A., Mizutani, Y., Nagamuta, M., and Ikenaga, M. 1989. "Effects of X-ray irradiation on natural killer (NK) cell system. II. Increased sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF)". United States. doi:10.3109/08923978909005382.
@article{osti_6992753,
title = {Effects of X-ray irradiation on natural killer (NK) cell system. II. Increased sensitivity to natural killer cytotoxic factor (NKCF)},
author = {Uchida, A. and Mizutani, Y. and Nagamuta, M. and Ikenaga, M.},
abstractNote = {Irradiation with low-doses of X-rays of tumor cells elevated their susceptibility to lysis by natural killer (NK) cells in an accompanying paper. Cytotoxicity assays conducted at the single cell level revealed that X-ray irradiation of K562 cells did not affect the number of effector-target conjugates but increased the frequency of dead conjugated target cells. During interaction with K562 cells large granular lymphocytes released a soluble cytotoxic factor (NKCF) that killed the target cells. X-ray irradiation did not affect the NKCF stimulatory ability of K562 cells, while it elevated their sensitivity to the lytic effect of NKCF. In contrast to X-rays, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation of K562 cells did not elevate their NK sensitivity but rather reduced it. Treatment with mitomycin C produced no effect on NK sensitivity. These results indicate that X-ray irradiation elevates the target sensitivity to NKCF, which may be involved in the increased NK sensitivity, and that the X-ray effect may be different from that of UV radiation or DNA synthesis inhibition.},
doi = {10.3109/08923978909005382},
journal = {Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 11:2-3,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 1
}
  • The in vitro effect of X-ray irradiation on the human natural killer (NK) system was studied. When K562 cells were irradiated with X-rays and cultured for 18 hours, they showed increased sensitivity to lysis by blood lymphocytes and purified large granular lymphocytes (LGL). The X-ray-induced augmentation was observed as little as 2 Gy irradiation, reaching maximum at 5 to 20 Gy. The doses of X-rays did not influence the viability and spontaneous release of the target cells. On the other hand, irradiation with X-rays of NK cells at 5 to 15 Gy resulted in a transient increase in NK activitymore » at 1 hour, and then the activity declined and was completely lost after 24 hours. However, when LGL were cultured with interferon immediately after irradiation, they maintained elevated NK activity. These results suggest the possible use of low doses of X-ray irradiation in combination with biological response modifiers for treatment of cancer.« less
  • The sensitivity of human natural killer (NK) cell activities (both binding and killing) after exposure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to different doses of gamma radiation was studied. A panel of monoclonal antibodies was used to identify the NK and T-lymphocyte subsets and to evaluate their radiosensitivity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were irradiated with low (2-6 Gy) and high (10-30 Gy) doses and NK cell binding and cytotoxic activity against K562 target cells were studied after 3 h and 48 h in culture. The primary damage to NK cell activity was identified at the postbinding level and affected mainly themore » lytic machinery. After 48 h culture postirradiation, an overall depression of cytotoxic activity was observed, but ionizing radiation produced either a selection of the more cytotoxic NK cell subsets, which therefore might be considered more resistant to radiation damage than the less cytotoxic NK cells, or a long-term stimulation of cytotoxic activity in surviving cells.« less
  • A subset of human T cells has recently been described. These cells express the CD3 complex but they do not carry the classical T-cell receptor (TCR)-..gamma../-..beta.. heterodimer on their surface (WT31/sup -/ CD3/sup +/). Instead, they express a TCR-..gamma.. chain associated with another type of polypeptide termed TCR-delta. The authors report here that a T-cell clone with natural killer (NK)-like activity, WM-14, had a disulfide bridged TCR-..gamma.. homodimer associated with CD3 on its surface. The TCR-..gamma.. chains of WM-14 cells were present in three different glycosylation forms of 43, 40, and 38 kDa, but they appeared to contain the samemore » polypeptide backbone. Since cytotoxicity by WM-14 could be inhibited by anti-CD3 antibodies, they concluded that the TCR-..gamma..-CD3 complex was involved in the NK-like unrestricted killer activity. Although normal CD3-..gamma.., CD3-delta, and CD3-element of chains were present in this clone, the association with the TCR-..gamma.. homodimer may be the cause of a complete processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides attached to the CD3-delta chain.« less
  • Hamsters were exposed to repeated or single doses of microwave energy and monitored for changes in core body temperature, circulating leukocyte profiles, serum corticosteroid levels, and natural killer (NK) cell activity in various tissues. NK cytotoxicity was measured in a /sup 51/Cr-release assay employing baby hamster kidney (BHK) targets or BHK infected with herpes simplex virus. Repeated exposure of hamsters at 15 mW/cm2 for 60 min/day had no significant effect on natural levels of spleen-cell NK activity against BHK targets. Similarly, repeated exposure at 15 mW/cm2 over a 5-day period had no demonstrable effect on the induction of spleen NKmore » activity by vaccinia virus immunization, that is, comparable levels of NK were induced in untreated and microwave-treated animals. In contrast, treatment of hamsters with a single 60-min microwave exposure at 25 mW/cm2 caused a significant suppression in induced spleen NK activity. A similar but less marked decrease in spleen NK activity was observed in sham-exposed animals. Moreover, the sham effects on NK activity were not predictable and appeared to represent large individual animal variations in the response to stress factors. Depressed spleen NK activity was evident as early as 4 h postmicrowave treatment and returned to normal levels by 8 h. Hamsters exposed at 25 mW/cm2 showed an elevated temperature of 3.0-3.5 degrees C that returned to normal within 60 min after termination of microwave exposure. These animals also showed a marked lymphopenia and neutrophilia by 1 h posttreatment that returned to normal by 8-10 h. Serum glucocorticosteroids were elevated between 1 aNd 8 h after microwave treatment. Sham-exposed animals did not demonstrate significant changes in core body temperature, peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) profile, or glucocorticosteroid levels as compared to minimum-handling controls.« less
  • A killing defect of natural killer (NK) cells in the absence of NK cytotoxic factors (NKCF) was first demonstrated in a child with Hodgkin's disease. The patient lacked detectable NK cell activity in every phase of the disease as measured by a four-hour /sup 51/Cr-release assay using K562 cells as a target. The percent lysis at a 40:1 effector:target ratio by the patient's lymphocytes was persistently below 0.3% as compared with the normal lymphocyte value of 46.2% +/- 5.8% (mean +/- SD). NK cell activity was not detectable at effector:target ratios of 10:1 to 80:1 and by prolongation of themore » incubation time, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by lymphocyte stimulation with polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid, interferon (IFN)-alpha, or interleukin 2 (IL 2). The numbers of Leu-7+ cells and Leu-11+ cells were normal as counted by flow cytometry. A single cell-in-agarose assay demonstrated normal numbers of target binding cells (TBCs), and they showed the morphology of large granular lymphocytes. However, there were no TBCs with dead targets. These results indicated that the patient's lymphocytes contained normal numbers of NK cells that were capable of recognizing and binding to a target but were incapable of killing the bound target cell. The patient's lymphocytes were then studied for their release of NKCF upon interaction with K562 cells. The patient's cells did not release NKCF, and the NK cell defect was not restored or improved by stimulation of the cells with IFN or IL 2. It is suggested that the deficient release of NKCF may have been related to the killing defect of the NK cells in this patient.« less