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Title: Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish

Abstract

In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH[sub 2]Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH[sub 2]Cl at 12[degrees]C and 25[degrees]C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-h pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development ofmore » these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. (Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States))
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Fish Physiology and Toxicology Lab.
Sponsoring Org.:
EPRI; Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
6501118
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 6501118
Report Number(s):
EPRI-TR-102057
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AMINES; TOXICITY; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; ACUTE EXPOSURE; BIOLOGICAL REPAIR; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; FISHES; LETHAL DOSES; MORTALITY; TIME DEPENDENCE; TROUT; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; BIOLOGICAL RECOVERY; DOSES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; REPAIR; VERTEBRATES 560300* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., and Bergman, H.L. Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. United States: N. p., 1993. Web.
Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., & Bergman, H.L. Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. United States.
Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., and Bergman, H.L. Mon . "Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_6501118,
title = {Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish},
author = {Meyer, J.S. and Gulley, D.D. and Bergman, H.L.},
abstractNote = {In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH[sub 2]Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH[sub 2]Cl at 12[degrees]C and 25[degrees]C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-h pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development of these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1993},
month = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1993}
}

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  • In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH{sub 2}Cl at 12{degrees}C and 25{degrees}C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-hmore » pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development of these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.« less
  • Laboratory bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ion to emerald shiners, channel catfish, and rainbow trout were conducted. Four exposure regimes typical of chlorination schedules at operating steam electric power plants were used. Fish were exposed to single 15-minute, 30-minute, 120-minute, and quadruple 30-minute periods. No mortality or LC50 values were determined for each species of fish and chemical species of chlorine. Hypochlorous acid was the most toxic form of chlorine studied, followed closely by dichloramine. Monochloramine and hypochlorite ion were three to four times less toxic than hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. Onmore » the average, emerald shiners were 1.8 times more sensitive to chlorine than channel catfish and 3.3 times more sensitive than rainbow trout to the four forms of chlorine. The fish were more tolerant of chlorine during short duration exposures and most sensitive during the continuous 120-minute exposures. The significant differences in toxicity noted among the various chlorine species suggest that careful attention should be paid not only to total residual chlorine but to both the chlorine and fish species present and the duration of exposure expected in establishing chlorination regimes.« less
  • The responses of fish (smallmouth bass, channel catfish, golden shiners, and bluegill), zooplankton, and benthic macroinvertebrates to various levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) were monitored in six large outdoor channels at TVA's Aquatic Research Laboratory at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Nitrogen stripping was used to remove oxygen from the water, and aquatic organisms were exposed to target levels of 5, 4, 3, and 2 mg/L (2 channels) and to an untreated control from July 24, 1984 until September 24, 1984. Responses of adult golden shiners, bluegill, and channel catfish to DO were not consistent, probably because of predation by smallmouthmore » bass on golden shiners and competition between bluegill and channel catfish. Bluegill spawned successfully only in the control. Cleaned nests were found in the 5 mg/L treatment and partially cleaned nests in the 3 and 4 mg/L treatments, but no evidence of nesting was found in the 2 mg/L treatment. 14 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.« less
  • The authors evaluated the ability of three mathematical models to predict toxicity to common shiners and rainbow trout during intermittent (pulsed) exposures to monochloramine, based on data from continuous-exposure toxicity tests. If a power term for the exposure-water concentration was included in the models, a concentration x time (Cxt) model and the Mancini uptake-depuration model predicted pulse LC50s to within [+-]50% of the observed pulse LC50s, for the first four pulses in toxicity tests with 2-h pulse/22-h recovery cycles. Beyond the fourth pulse cycle, though, the pulse LC50s predicted using the Cxt model appeared to diverge considerably from the trendmore » of the experimental pulse LC50s, partly because this model does not predict an incipient lethal level (C[sub ILL]) for either continuous or intermittent exposures. The Mancini model predicted the C[sub ILL] moderately well in the common shiner intermittent-exposure test but not in the rainbow trout intermittent-exposure test. The Breck three-dimensional damage-repair model did not predict pulse LC50 or C[sub ILL] values as well as did the other two models, probably because not enough partial-mortality data were available to parameterize the model adequately. Although the underlying processes appear to be more complex than what these simple models assume, the models may still be adequate for use in regulating a few pulse discharges of monochloramine.« less
  • Program SURPH is the culmination of several years of research to develop a comprehensive computer program to analyze survival studies of fish and wildlife populations. Development of this software was motivated by the advent of the PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) technology that permits the detection of salmonid smolt as they pass through hydroelectric facilities on the Snake and Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Repeated detections of individually tagged smolt and analysis of their capture-histories permits estimates of downriver survival probabilities. Eventual installation of detection facilities at adult fish ladders will also permit estimation of ocean survival and upstream survivalmore » of returning salmon using the statistical methods incorporated in SURPH.1. However, the utility of SURPH.1 far exceeds solely the analysis of salmonid tagging studies. Release-recapture and radiotelemetry studies from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species have been analyzed using SURPH.1 to estimate discrete time survival probabilities and investigate survival relationships. The interactive computing environment of SURPH.1 was specifically developed to allow researchers to investigate the relationship between survival and capture processes and environmental, experimental and individual-based covariates. Program SURPH.1 represents a significant advancement in the ability of ecologists to investigate the interplay between morphologic, genetic, environmental and anthropogenic factors on the survival of wild species. It is hoped that this better understanding of risk factors affecting survival will lead to greater appreciation of the intricacies of nature and to improvements in the management of wild resources. This technical report is an introduction to SURPH.1 and provides a user guide for both the UNIX and MS-Windows{reg_sign} applications of the SURPH software.« less