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Title: Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. Final report

Abstract

In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH{sub 2}Cl at 12{degrees}C and 25{degrees}C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-h pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development ofmore » these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Fish Physiology and Toxicology Lab.
Sponsoring Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
10146618
Report Number(s):
EPRI-TR-102057
ON: UN93011826
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Mar 1993
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AMINES; TOXICITY; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; FISHES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; TROUT; ACUTE EXPOSURE; MORTALITY; BIOLOGICAL REPAIR; TIME DEPENDENCE; LETHAL DOSES; 560300; CHEMICALS METABOLISM AND TOXICOLOGY

Citation Formats

Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., and Bergman, H.L. Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. Final report. United States: N. p., 1993. Web.
Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., & Bergman, H.L. Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. Final report. United States.
Meyer, J.S., Gulley, D.D., and Bergman, H.L. Mon . "Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. Final report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_10146618,
title = {Modeling the effect of intermittent monochloramine concentrations on survival of freshwater fish. Final report},
author = {Meyer, J.S. and Gulley, D.D. and Bergman, H.L.},
abstractNote = {In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH{sub 2}Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH{sub 2}Cl at 12{degrees}C and 25{degrees}C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-h pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development of these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1993},
month = {Mon Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 1993}
}

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  • In this project we developed and evaluated mathematical models to predict toxicity to freshwater fish during continuous and intermittent exposures to monochloramine (NH[sub 2]Cl). A simple concentration x time model and three models based on the general Mancini uptake-depuration model were included in this analysis. Performance of the models was evaluated using published continuous- and intermittent-exposure toxicity data for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common shiners (Notropis cornutus) exposed to NH[sub 2]Cl at 12[degrees]C and 25[degrees]C, respectively. Currently used models predicted LC50s for the first four pulses during intermittent exposures moderately well when the fish were exposed to repeated 2-hmore » pulse/22-h recovery cycles; however, predicted pulse LC50s appeared to diverge from the trend for the observed LC50s as the number of pulses increased. This accuracy may be suitable for regulatory purposes, if LC50s are to be predicted for only the initial few cycles of a pulse-recovery exposure regime. However, itappears that details of the complex physiological mechanisms of monochloramine toxicity may not be adequately modeled by the Mancini type models or by the simplistic concentration x time model. If more accuratepredictions are desired, either more complex models or other models based on different basic structures must be developed. Development of these new models should be based on studies of the physiological processes underlying uptake and depuration of chlorine-related compounds.« less
  • Laboratory bioassays to determine the acute toxicity of monochloramine, dichloramine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ion to emerald shiners, channel catfish, and rainbow trout were conducted. Four exposure regimes typical of chlorination schedules at operating steam electric power plants were used. Fish were exposed to single 15-minute, 30-minute, 120-minute, and quadruple 30-minute periods. No mortality or LC50 values were determined for each species of fish and chemical species of chlorine. Hypochlorous acid was the most toxic form of chlorine studied, followed closely by dichloramine. Monochloramine and hypochlorite ion were three to four times less toxic than hypochlorous acid and dichloramine. Onmore » the average, emerald shiners were 1.8 times more sensitive to chlorine than channel catfish and 3.3 times more sensitive than rainbow trout to the four forms of chlorine. The fish were more tolerant of chlorine during short duration exposures and most sensitive during the continuous 120-minute exposures. The significant differences in toxicity noted among the various chlorine species suggest that careful attention should be paid not only to total residual chlorine but to both the chlorine and fish species present and the duration of exposure expected in establishing chlorination regimes.« less
  • Aqueous chlorine and monochloramine are the two most widely used disinfectants of drinking waters in the U.S. The reactions of these two disinfectants with various organic functional groups in order to predict which classes of chemical substrates might be most likely to undergo transformations under drinking water conditions are reviewed. For those reactions for which kinetic data are available, the half-lives of substances containing these functional groups is estimated. Where possible, known reaction mechanisms are identified and structure activity relationships are discussed.
  • Five emigrating populations of Dolly Varden and cutthroat trout were intercepted in 1989-1991 during seaward migration to Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill; two into the spill area, three into non-spill areas. Study populations were comprised of tagged adults and subadults. Survival rates were estimated with log-linear models of capture histories of tagged fish. We used a two-stage simulation based on bootstrapping and Monte Carlo techniques to compare average survival rates in study populations that were and were not associated with spilled oil. Growth and survival rates were significantly lower in study populations associated with spilled oil.more » Results are consistent with the occurrence of a deleterious impact on growth and survival of emigrating species, although unable to be confirmed as results emanated from observation, not experiment.« less
  • Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survivalmore » and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.« less