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Title: Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration

Abstract

Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous {beta}-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed alongmore » the filopodia in {sup 35}SO{sub 4}-labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5671379
Resource Type:
Miscellaneous
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Thesis (Ph. D.)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; EMBRYONIC CELLS; PHYSIOLOGY; GLYCOPROTEINS; BIOSYNTHESIS; SEA URCHINS; ONTOGENESIS; AUTORADIOGRAPHY; ELECTROPHORESIS; EMBRYOS; GLYCOSYL HYDROLASES; ION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SULFATES; SULFUR 35; ANIMAL CELLS; ANIMALS; AQUATIC ORGANISMS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CHROMATOGRAPHY; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; ECHINODERMS; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ENZYMES; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; HYDROLASES; INVERTEBRATES; ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; MICROSCOPY; NUCLEI; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PROTEINS; RADIOISOTOPES; SEPARATION PROCESSES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR ISOTOPES; SYNTHESIS; 550201* - Biochemistry- Tracer Techniques

Citation Formats

Lane, M.C. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Lane, M.C. Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration. United States.
Lane, M.C. 1989. "Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5671379,
title = {Cell-surface proteoglycan in sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell migration},
author = {Lane, M.C.},
abstractNote = {Early in the development of the sea urchin embryo, the primary mesenchyme cells (PMC) migrate along the basal lamina of the blastocoel. Migration is inhibited in L. pictus embryos cultured in sulfate-free seawater and in S. purpuratus embryos exposed to exogenous {beta}-D-xylosides. An in vitro assay was developed to test the migratory capacity of normal PMC on normal and treated blastocoelic matrix. Sulfate deprivation and exposure to exogenous xyloside render PMC nonmotile on either matrix. Materials removed from the surface of normal PMC by treatment with 1 M urea restored migratory ability to defective cells, whereas a similar preparation isolated from the surface of epithelial cells at the same stage did not. Migration also resumed when cells were removed from the xyloside or returned to normal seawater. The urea extract was partially purified and characterized by radiolabeling, gel electrophoresis, fluorography, ion exchange chromatography, and western blotting. The PMC synthesize a large chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is present in an active fraction isolated by chromatography. Chondroitinase ABC digestion of live cells blocked migration reversibly, further supporting the identification of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan as the active component in the urea extract. Much of the incorporated sulfate was distributed along the filopodia in {sup 35}SO{sub 4}-labelled PMC by autoradiography. The morphology of normal and treated S. purpuratus PMC was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and differences in spreading, particularly of the extensive filopodia present on the cells, was observed. A model for the role of the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate proteoglycan in cell detachment during migration is proposed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 1
}

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  • The cell surface and extracellular matrix (ECM) of the sea urchin embryo were studied during the early morphogenetic events involved in the differentiation of the micromere cell lineage. Sixteen-cell and early cleavage stage blastomeres were isolated and the protein composition of their cell surfaces examined by /sup 125/I-labelling followed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Micromere-specific cell surface proteins are reported for Arbacia punctulata, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Cell surface glycoproteins were characterized on the basis of lectin binding specificity with a novel lectin affinity transfer technique. Using this procedure, cell-type specific surface proteins, which are also lectin-binding specific, canmore » be detected. In addition, fluorescein conjugated lectins were microinjected into the blastocoels of living S. drobachiensis and Lytechinus pictus embryos and the patterns of lectin bindings observed by fluorescence microscopy. The evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the differentiation of the primary mesenchyme cells is correlated with changes in the molecular composition of the cell-surface and the ECM.« less
  • Proteoglycans (PG) are implicated in atherogenesis by their effects on tissue permeability and cell proliferation and their interaction with plasma low density lipoproteins. Using the pigeon model in which an atherosclerosis-susceptible (WC) and -resistant (SR) breed can be compared, PG synthesis by cultured aortic smooth muscle cells was examined by the use of ({sup 35}S)-sodium sulfate and ({sup 3}H)-serine or ({sup 3}H)-glucosamine as labeling precursors. In both SR and WC cells, the majority of newly synthesized PG were secreted into the media. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) PG and dermatan sulfate (DS) PG were the major PG produced. Total PG production wasmore » consistently lower in WC compared to SR cultures due in part to reduce PG synthesis but also to degradation of newly synthesized PG. Since increased DS-PG accompanines atherosclerosis progression, experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that macrophages modulate smooth muscle cell metabolism to cause increase DS-PG production. Cultured WC aortic smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1 and the production of PG examined. Increasing concentration of conditioned media from both types of macrophages caused increased incorporation of {sup 35}S-sulfate into secreted PG, but no change in cell-associated PG. Lipopolysaccharide activation of P388D1 cells enhanced the effect.« less
  • PMOD-Version 1.4 is a copyrighted computer program for simulating oil generation, cracking, and other chemical reactions occuring during the pyrolysis of petroleum source rocks oaver a specified history of temperature and either depth or hydrostatic pressure. The chemical reaction mechanism is defined by the user and, within limits, can be as simple or complex as desired. The model also simulates compaction of the source rock and expulsion of a liquid water phase and a liquid hydrocarbon phase. The expulsion is done by either a simple, constant-fluid-density model or by a more rigorous model using a modified Redlich-Kwong-Soave eqauation of state.more » The latter model also calculates overpressuring. An auxiliary program, PLOTPMOD, permits graphical display and hardcopy of the results, as well as preperation of ASCII-file subsets of the results for use with a spreadsheet or other graphics program.« less
  • Three mathematical models are presented, one for the secondary zinc/bromine flow cell and two for the lithium/thionyl chloride primary cell. The objectives in this modeling work are to aid in understanding the physical phenomena affecting cell performance, determine methods of improving cell performance and safety, and reduce the experimental efforts needed to develop these electrochemical systems. The zinc/bromine cell model is the first such model to include a porous layer on the bromine electrode and to predict discharge behavior. The model is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances and the electroneutrality condition for the unknowns, species concentrations andmore » the solution potential. Two models are presented for the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. The first model is a detailed one-dimensional model which is used to solve simultaneously the component material balances, Ohm's law relations, and current balance. The independent design criteria are identified from the model development. The second model presented here is a two-dimensional thermal model for the spirally would configuration of the lithium/thionyl chloride cell. This is the first model to address the effects of the spiral geometry on heat transfer in the cell.« less
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