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Title: Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine

Abstract

Inadequate dietary copper(Cu) is known to elicit several undesirable metabolic changes in humans and rats. Abnormal cardiac function, including sudden death is a common finding in copper deficient (CuD) rats, especially those fed diets with a high fructose (FR) content. Swine were chosen as the animal model for this project since their circulatory system is morphologically similar to that of humans. In an effort to further study these dietary effects 12 male and 12 female swine were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 pigs each and fed CuD and Cu supplemented (CuS) diets with 20% of calories from either FR or glucose (GL) for a period of 10 weeks. In agreement with data from recent experiments, CuD swine exhibited anemia, decreased ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and serum Cu; however, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly when the animals were fed the CuD diets as compared to those fed CuS diets. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity was lowest for pigs fed the CuD FR diet compared to the CuS and CuD Gl groups during the study. SGPT activity usually increases when humans consume high FR diets. The results of these analyses indicate that swine are an acceptable model formore » the study of dietary CuD, although some indices give inverse results compared to those seen in rats and humans.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD
OSTI Identifier:
5381865
Report Number(s):
CONF-8604222-
Journal ID: CODEN: FEPRA
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.; (United States); Journal Volume: 45:3; Conference: 70. annual meeting of the Federation of American Society for Experimental Biology, St. Louis, MO, USA, 13 Apr 1986
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AMINOTRANSFERASES; ENZYME ACTIVITY; COPPER; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY; ANEMIAS; BIOLOGICAL MODELS; CHOLESTEROL; DIET; FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; METABOLISM; SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE; SWINE; SYNERGISM; TRIGLYCERIDES; ALDEHYDES; ANIMALS; CARBOHYDRATES; DISEASES; DOMESTIC ANIMALS; ELEMENTS; ENZYMES; ESTERS; HEMIC DISEASES; HEXOSES; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; KETONES; LIPIDS; MAMMALS; METALS; MONOSACCHARIDES; NITROGEN TRANSFERASES; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXIDOREDUCTASES; SACCHARIDES; STEROIDS; STEROLS; SYMPTOMS; TRANSFERASES; TRANSITION ELEMENTS; VERTEBRATES 560305* -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology-- Vertebrates-- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Scholfield, D.J., Reiser, S., Steele, N., Darcey, S., Richards, M., Fields, M., and Smith, J.C. Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine. United States: N. p., 1986. Web.
Scholfield, D.J., Reiser, S., Steele, N., Darcey, S., Richards, M., Fields, M., & Smith, J.C. Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine. United States.
Scholfield, D.J., Reiser, S., Steele, N., Darcey, S., Richards, M., Fields, M., and Smith, J.C. 1986. "Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5381865,
title = {Metabolic effects of carbohydrate-copper interactions in swine},
author = {Scholfield, D.J. and Reiser, S. and Steele, N. and Darcey, S. and Richards, M. and Fields, M. and Smith, J.C.},
abstractNote = {Inadequate dietary copper(Cu) is known to elicit several undesirable metabolic changes in humans and rats. Abnormal cardiac function, including sudden death is a common finding in copper deficient (CuD) rats, especially those fed diets with a high fructose (FR) content. Swine were chosen as the animal model for this project since their circulatory system is morphologically similar to that of humans. In an effort to further study these dietary effects 12 male and 12 female swine were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 pigs each and fed CuD and Cu supplemented (CuS) diets with 20% of calories from either FR or glucose (GL) for a period of 10 weeks. In agreement with data from recent experiments, CuD swine exhibited anemia, decreased ceruloplasmin, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase and serum Cu; however, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly when the animals were fed the CuD diets as compared to those fed CuS diets. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity was lowest for pigs fed the CuD FR diet compared to the CuS and CuD Gl groups during the study. SGPT activity usually increases when humans consume high FR diets. The results of these analyses indicate that swine are an acceptable model for the study of dietary CuD, although some indices give inverse results compared to those seen in rats and humans.},
doi = {},
journal = {Fed. Proc., Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 45:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 3
}

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  • The effects of dietary carbohydrate on the metabolism of iron and the activity of cytochrome oxidase were examined in Cu-deficient and Cu-adequate rats. Male rats (n = 36) were fed one of six diets which varied in copper level (Cu-: < 0.6 ppm or Cu+: 8.2 ppm) and carbohydrate type (cornstarch, sucrose or fructose). After 31 days, Cu- rats had 50% more iron in the liver and 38, 30 and 18% less iron in the tibia, spleen and kidneys, respectively, than Cu+ rats. The activity of cytochrome oxidase in the bone marrow, heart, and liver were 59%, 51%, and 43%,more » respectively, of the levels in Cu/sup +/ rats. The type of dietary carbohydrate significantly affected the development of anemia during copper deficiency. Cu-rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose had hematocrit levels which were 92, 83 or 73%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. Similarly, the levels of iron in the tibias of Cu- rats fed cornstarch, sucrose or fructose were 69, 66 or 54%, respectively, of Cu+ rats. The hematocrit levels of Cu- rats were positively correlated to both tibia iron levels (r = 0.64, p < 0.005) and liver cytochrome oxidase activities (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Thus, it appears that changes in the metabolism of iron may be involved with the development of anemia in Cu- rats fed fructose or sucrose.« less
  • Fructose (FR) has been reported to aggravate copper (Cu) deficiency disorders in the rat. Weanling pigs, 21 days of age, were fed diets containing FR or glucose monohydrate (GL), each providing 20% of total calories. Diets were either unsupplemented (-, 1.5 ppm) or fortified (+, 40 ppm) with Cu. Following 10 weeks of dietary treatment, plasma and aortic LOA were appraised. Dietary Cu deficiency reduced LOA in both plasma and aortic tissue. Furthermore, feeding FR in conjunction with low Cu intake resulted in a greater reduction of aortic tissue LOA, implying that connective tissue metabolism and cardiac muscle integrity couldmore » be affected adversely. In that these effects were noted at a modest level of dietary FR, this pig model may be useful for the study of copper-carbohydrate interactions as relevant to the human population.« less
  • Sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) were exposed in flowing seawater to Cu or to a mixture of Cu and equimolar Cd for 8 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at 2-wk intervals and the kidneys examined by electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis for ultra-structural changes, by column chromatography for analysis of metal-binding proteins, and by enzyme assays for detection of metabolic change. The gonads were examined by histology for gamete maturation, by assays of nucleic acids and enzymes for metabolic change, and by AA for Cu, Cd, Mn, and Mg content.
  • The distribution of /sup 64/Cu among Cu-binding proteins of hepatocytic cytosol was determined after incubating with 2-20 ..mu..M /sup 64/Cu(II) for 1-90 min. Sephadex G150 resolved four /sup 6/2$Cu-containing fractions from rat hepatocytes; Mr greater than or equal to 300 Kd, Mr approx. = 88Kd, Mr approx. = 38Kd and Mr approx. = 10Kd. Higher percentages of /sup 64/Cu were found in the 10Kd and 38Kd fractions at 2 ..mu..M Cu(II) than 10 ..mu..M Cu(II). Mouse hepatocytes showed the same four components. However, relatively less /sup 64/Cu was found in the metallothionein (MT) containing (10Kd) fraction and more in themore » 88Kd and 33Kd fractions. In the kidney, relatively more /sup 64/Cu was detected in the 88Kd fraction and no /sup 64/Cu was detected in the 38Kd fraction. Cu-deficient rat hepatocytes exhibited a similar distribution as normocupric mouse hepatocytes. Brindled-mouse hepatocytes showed abnormally high Cu in the greater than or equal to 300 Kd and no /sup 64/Cu in the 88Kd fraction. In developing rats (10-20d), most of the cytosolic /sup 64/Cu was in the MT-fraction. Between 20-30Kd, corresponding decreases in MT-/sup 64/Cu and increases in each of the other fractions occurred. The results indicate that one or more components in each of the four fractions is sensitive to copper status. These components may have roles in Cu-metabolism.« less