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Title: Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

Abstract

A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation betweenmore » radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
5018102
Report Number(s):
DOE/ER/60912-1
ON: DE92002574
DOE Contract Number:
FG05-89ER60912
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; BRAIN; MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES; GUINEA PIGS; BIOLOGICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; LITTER SIZE; MORPHOLOGY; ONTOGENESIS; RADIOINDUCTION; SEX DEPENDENCE; X RADIATION; ANIMALS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; BODY; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION; IONIZING RADIATIONS; MAMMALS; NERVOUS SYSTEM; ORGANS; RADIATION EFFECTS; RADIATIONS; RODENTS; VERTEBRATES; 560152* - Radiation Effects on Animals- Animals; 550800 - Morphology

Citation Formats

Wagner, L.K., Johnston, D.A., and Felleman, D.J. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs. United States: N. p., 1991. Web. doi:10.2172/5018102.
Wagner, L.K., Johnston, D.A., & Felleman, D.J. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs. United States. doi:10.2172/5018102.
Wagner, L.K., Johnston, D.A., and Felleman, D.J. Tue . "Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs". United States. doi:10.2172/5018102. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/5018102.
@article{osti_5018102,
title = {Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs},
author = {Wagner, L.K. and Johnston, D.A. and Felleman, D.J.},
abstractNote = {A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs.},
doi = {10.2172/5018102},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1991},
month = {Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1991}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Radiation-induced hypothermia was examined in guinea pigs. Exposure to the head alone or whole-body irradiation-induced hypothermia, whereas exposure of the body alone produced a small insignificant response. Systemic injection of disodium cromoglycate (a mast cell stabilizer) and cimetidine (H2-receptor antagonist) had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia, whereas systemic and central administration of mepyramine (H1-receptor antagonist) or central administration disodium cromoglycate or cimetidine attenuated it, indicating the involvement of central histamine through both H1 and H2 receptors in this response. Serotonin is not involved, since the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on radiation-induced hypothermia. These results indicate that central histaminergicmore » systems may be involved in radiation-induced hypothermia.« less
  • Previous observations concenaing a protective effect of heterologous cell-free total spleen extracts, i.e., injection of mouse spleen extracts into guinea pigs after their exposure to a lethal dose of ionizing radiation, are confirmed. It is demonstrated furthermore that the active principle remains stable within these crude extracts fcr a period of one year if the lyophilized extract is stored in a refrigerator. The significance of these observations for isolation and identification of the active principle is discussed, as well as the possibility to use crude spleen extracts for the postirradiation treatment of the acute radiation syndrome. (auth)
  • The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observedmore » effect on brain weight.« less
  • The effect of x rays on brain weight of guinea pig pups at birth was studied for 21-day old embroys exposed in utero to doses of 75 and 100 mGy. When compared to controls and when corrected for body weight, gestation time, litter size, sex, and examiner differences the brains of irradiated pups weighed approximately 46 mg less than those of controls (p<0.001) for the 75-mGy group and about 55 mg less for the 100-mGy group. Brains of females weighed 51 mg less than those of males of the same body weight. Dam weight and caging conditions had no observedmore » effect on brain weight.« less