skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay

Abstract

Stromal cell progenitors (fibroblastoid colony-forming unit; CFU-Fs) are representative of the progenitor cell population of the hemopoietic microenvironment in bone marrow (BM). Previous studies of the radiation dose-effect relationships for colony formation have shown that canine CFU-Fs are relatively radioresistant as characterized by a D{sub 0} value of about 2.4 Gy. In contrast, hemopoietic progenitors are particularly radiosensitive (D{sub 0} values = 0.12-0.60 Gy). In the present study, the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis technique for the in situ quantitation of DNA strand breaks and alkalilabile site was employed. Canine buffy coat cells from BM aspirates and cells harvested from CFU-F colonies or from mixed populations of adherent BM stromal cell (SC) layers were exposed to increasing doses of X-rays, embedded in agarose gel on slides, lysed with detergents, and placed in an electric field. DNA migrating from single cells in the gel was made visible as {open_quotes}comets{close_quotes} by ethidium bromide staining. Immediate DNA damage was much less in cultured stromal cells than in hemopoietic cells in BM aspirates. These results suggest that the observed differences in clonogenic survival could be partly due to differences in the type of the initial DNA damage between stromal cells and hemopoietic cells. 37 refs.,more » 2 figs., 1 tab.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Ulm (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
426096
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis; Journal Volume: 27; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: PBD: 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; BONE MARROW; GENETIC RADIATION EFFECTS; DNA; STRAND BREAKS

Citation Formats

Kreja, L., Selig, C., Plappert, U., and Nothdurft, W. Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)27:1<39::AID-EM6>3.3.CO;2-1.
Kreja, L., Selig, C., Plappert, U., & Nothdurft, W. Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay. United States. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)27:1<39::AID-EM6>3.3.CO;2-1.
Kreja, L., Selig, C., Plappert, U., and Nothdurft, W. 1996. "Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay". United States. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)27:1<39::AID-EM6>3.3.CO;2-1.
@article{osti_426096,
title = {Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay},
author = {Kreja, L. and Selig, C. and Plappert, U. and Nothdurft, W.},
abstractNote = {Stromal cell progenitors (fibroblastoid colony-forming unit; CFU-Fs) are representative of the progenitor cell population of the hemopoietic microenvironment in bone marrow (BM). Previous studies of the radiation dose-effect relationships for colony formation have shown that canine CFU-Fs are relatively radioresistant as characterized by a D{sub 0} value of about 2.4 Gy. In contrast, hemopoietic progenitors are particularly radiosensitive (D{sub 0} values = 0.12-0.60 Gy). In the present study, the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis technique for the in situ quantitation of DNA strand breaks and alkalilabile site was employed. Canine buffy coat cells from BM aspirates and cells harvested from CFU-F colonies or from mixed populations of adherent BM stromal cell (SC) layers were exposed to increasing doses of X-rays, embedded in agarose gel on slides, lysed with detergents, and placed in an electric field. DNA migrating from single cells in the gel was made visible as {open_quotes}comets{close_quotes} by ethidium bromide staining. Immediate DNA damage was much less in cultured stromal cells than in hemopoietic cells in BM aspirates. These results suggest that the observed differences in clonogenic survival could be partly due to differences in the type of the initial DNA damage between stromal cells and hemopoietic cells. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(1996)27:1<39::AID-EM6>3.3.CO;2-1},
journal = {Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis},
number = 1,
volume = 27,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month =
}
  • A method for measuring DNA damage to individual cells, based on the technique of microelectrophoresis, was described by Ostling and Johanson in 1984. Cells embedded in agarose are lysed, subjected briefly to an electric field, stained with a fluorescent DNA-binding stain, and viewed using a fluorescence microscope. Broken DNA migrates farther in the electric field, and the cell then resembles a comet with a brightly fluorescent head and a tail region which increases as damage increases. We have used video image analysis to define appropriate features of the comet as a measure of DNA damage, and have quantified damage andmore » repair by ionizing radiation. The assay was optimized for lysing solution, lysing time, electrophoresis time, and propidium iodide concentration using Chinese hamster V79 cells. To assess heterogeneity of response of normal versus malignant cells, damage to both tumor cells and normal cells within mouse SCC-VII tumors was assessed. Tumor cells were separated from macrophages using a cell-sorting method based on differential binding of FITC-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG. The tail moment, the product of the amount of DNA in the tail and the mean distance of migration in the tail, was the most informative feature of the comet image. Tumor and normal cells showed significant heterogeneity in damage produced by ionizing radiation, although the average amount of damage increased linearly with dose (0-15 Gy) and suggested similar net radiosensitivities for the two cell types. Similarly, DNA repair rate was not significantly different for tumor and normal cells, and most of the cells had repaired the damage by 30 min following exposure to 15 Gy. The heterogeneity in response did not appear to be a result of differences in response through the cell cycle.« less
  • We studied the ability of the hemopoietic organ stroma to recover from damage inflicted by 5 or 7 Gy gamma radiation administered during a period of stromal growth in 4-week-old mice. Irradiation resulted in an immediate depletion of femoral colony-forming fibroblastic progenitors (CFU-F) down to 10-20% of age-matched control values. A full recovery to normal numbers occurred between 120 and 240 days after irradiation and was followed by a secondary decrease 1 year after irradiation. This secondary decrease was accompanied by a decrease in the femoral CFU-S and CFU-C content. Femoral CFU-F attained normal numbers and it was demonstrated tomore » occur from surviving CFU-F and could not be enhanced or prolonged following infusion of unirradiated bone marrow cells after irradiation. During the transient CFU-F recovery the hemopoietic stroma remained severely damaged as judged by the regenerative capacity of spleen and femur stroma after subcutaneous implantation, and the ability of the spleen to accumulate CFU-S in response to lipopolysaccharide injection. We have reported earlier that in similarly irradiated adult mice, no restoration of femoral CFU-F was observed. This difference between 4-week-old and adult mice could not be explained by a difference in in vitro radiosensitivity of CFU-F or in their in vivo regeneration kinetics following irradiation and subsequent lipopolysaccharide injection. We conclude from these observations that the recovery kinetics of the CFU-F population is different in young and adult irradiated mice, infused CFU-F do not contribute to CFU-F regeneration in an irradiated femur, CFU-F are not the sole determinants of stromal regeneration in femur and spleen following irradiation.« less
  • Removal of histones and other nuclear proteins greatly enhances the sensitivity of mammalian cells to DNA damage by ionizing radiation. We examined the possibility that the ease of dissociation of histones, or the association of other nuclear proteins with DNA, may differ between radioresistant and sensitive human tumor cells. Cells embedded in agarose were exposed to increasing salt concentrations prior to irradiation and examination using a microscopic gel electrophoresis method, the neutral comet assay. Induction of double-strand breaks increased by a factor of about 20 when cells of four human tumor cell line HT144 melanoma, HT29 adenocarcinoma, DU145 prostate carcinomamore » and U87 glioma, were exposed to 2 M NaCl; however, no correlation with radiosensitivity was apparent. While a significant number of histone and non-histone proteins are present after extraction with 1.2 M NaCL, these proteins apparently have only a minor influence on radiosensitivity. However, if they are allowed to remain with DNA during electrophoresis, about 15 times more strand breaks are required to produce a similar amount of DNA migration in both DU145 and HT144 cells. These results suggest that the association between proteins and DNA within the nucleus, as probed by extraction with sodium chloride, does not help to explain differences in intrinsic radiosensitivity among cells of these diverse tumor cell lines. 33 refs., 11 figs.« less
  • Overall coefficients for quality of neutron radiation were determined for a two-component dose-activity of bone marrow hemopoiesis function. It was established that these coefficients depend on the mean LET of neutrons with different energy spectra.
  • Purpose: To investigate the effects of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) on the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), and DNA damage in EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. The ability of MGd to alter radiosensitivity and to inhibit DNA damage repair after X-ray irradiation was also evaluated. Methods and Materials: Reactive oxygen species and GSH levels were assessed by 2,7-dichlorofluorescein fluorescence flow cytometry and the Tietze method, respectively. Cellular radiosensitivity was assessed by clonogenic assays. Deoxyribonucleic acid damage and DNA damage repair were assessed in plateau-phase EMT6 cells by the Comet assay and clonogenic assays. Results: Cells treated with 100more » {mu}mol/L MGd plus equimolar ascorbic acid (AA) had significantly increased levels of ROS and a 58.9% {+-} 3.4% decrease in GSH levels, relative to controls. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA treatment increased the hypoxic, but not the aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. There were increased levels of single-strand breaks in cells treated with 100 {mu}mol/L MGd plus equimolar AA, as evidenced by changes in the alkaline tail moment (MGd + AA, 6 h: 14.7 {+-} 1.8; control: 2.8 {+-} 0.9). The level of single-strand breaks was dependent on the length of treatment. Motexafin gadolinium plus AA did not increase double-strand breaks. The repair of single-strand breaks at 2 h, but not at 4 h and 6 h, after irradiation was altered significantly in cells treated with MGd plus AA (MGd + AA, 2 h: 15.8 {+-} 3.4; control: 5.8 {+-} 0.6). Motexafin gadolinium did not alter the repair of double-strand breaks at any time after irradiation with 10 Gy. Conclusions: Motexafin gadolinium plus AA generated ROS, which in turn altered GSH homeostasis and induced DNA strand breaks. The MGd plus AA-mediated alteration of GSH levels increased the hypoxic, but not aerobic, radiosensitivity of EMT6 cells. Motexafin gadolinium altered the kinetics of single-strand break repair soon after irradiation but did not inhibit potentially lethal damage repair in EMT6 cells.« less