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Title: Temperature dependence of field-responsive mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate

Abstract

An electric field loading stage was designed for use in a laboratory diffractometer that enables in situ investigations of the temperature dependence in the field response mechanisms of ferroelectric materials. The stage was demonstrated in this paper by measuring PbZr 1-xTi xO 3 (PZT) based materials—a commercially available PZT and a 1% Nb-doped PbZr 0.56Ti 0.44O 3 (PZT 56/44)—over a temperature range of 25°C to 250°C. The degree of non-180° domain alignment (η 002) of the PZT as a function of temperature was quantified. η 002 of the commercially available PZT increases exponentially with temperature, and was analyzed as a thermally activated process as described by the Arrhenius law. The activation energy for thermally activated domain wall depinning process in PZT was found to be 0.47 eV. Additionally, a field-induced rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition was observed 5°C below the rhombohedral-tetragonal transition in PZT 56/44 ceramic. The field-induced tetragonal phase fraction was increased 41.8% after electrical cycling. Finally, a large amount of domain switching (η 002=0.45 at 1.75 kV/mm) was observed in the induced tetragonal phase.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1];  [4];  [1]
  1. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Directorate
  3. Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  4. PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Science Foundation (NSF); State of North Carolina (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1376454
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1378387
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357; IIP-1361571; IIP-1361503; ECCS-1542015
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 100; Journal Issue: 9; Journal ID: ISSN 0002-7820
Publisher:
American Ceramic Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; domains; ferroelectricity/ferroelectric materials; lead zirconate titanate; phase transformations; X-ray methods

Citation Formats

Chung, Ching-Chang, Fancher, Chris M., Isaac, Catherine, Nikkel, Jason, Hennig, Eberhard, and Jones, Jacob L.. Temperature dependence of field-responsive mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1111/jace.14979.
Chung, Ching-Chang, Fancher, Chris M., Isaac, Catherine, Nikkel, Jason, Hennig, Eberhard, & Jones, Jacob L.. Temperature dependence of field-responsive mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate. United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14979.
Chung, Ching-Chang, Fancher, Chris M., Isaac, Catherine, Nikkel, Jason, Hennig, Eberhard, and Jones, Jacob L.. Wed . "Temperature dependence of field-responsive mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate". United States. doi:10.1111/jace.14979.
@article{osti_1376454,
title = {Temperature dependence of field-responsive mechanisms in lead zirconate titanate},
author = {Chung, Ching-Chang and Fancher, Chris M. and Isaac, Catherine and Nikkel, Jason and Hennig, Eberhard and Jones, Jacob L.},
abstractNote = {An electric field loading stage was designed for use in a laboratory diffractometer that enables in situ investigations of the temperature dependence in the field response mechanisms of ferroelectric materials. The stage was demonstrated in this paper by measuring PbZr1-xTixO3 (PZT) based materials—a commercially available PZT and a 1% Nb-doped PbZr0.56Ti0.44O3 (PZT 56/44)—over a temperature range of 25°C to 250°C. The degree of non-180° domain alignment (η002) of the PZT as a function of temperature was quantified. η002 of the commercially available PZT increases exponentially with temperature, and was analyzed as a thermally activated process as described by the Arrhenius law. The activation energy for thermally activated domain wall depinning process in PZT was found to be 0.47 eV. Additionally, a field-induced rhombohedral to tetragonal phase transition was observed 5°C below the rhombohedral-tetragonal transition in PZT 56/44 ceramic. The field-induced tetragonal phase fraction was increased 41.8% after electrical cycling. Finally, a large amount of domain switching (η002=0.45 at 1.75 kV/mm) was observed in the induced tetragonal phase.},
doi = {10.1111/jace.14979},
journal = {Journal of the American Ceramic Society},
number = 9,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed May 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Ceramic niobium modified 95/5 lead zirconate-lead titanate (PZT) undergoes a pressure induced ferroelectric to antiferroelectric phase transformation accompanied by an elimination of polarization and a volume reduction. Electric field and temperature drive the reverse transformation from the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase. The phase transformation was monitored under pressure, temperature, and electric field loading. Pressures and temperatures were varied in discrete steps from 0 MPa to 500 MPa and 25 °C to 125 °C, respectively. Cyclic bipolar electric fields were applied with peak amplitudes of up to 6 MV m{sup −1} at each pressure and temperature combination. The resulting electric displacement–electric field hysteresis loops weremore » open “D” shaped at low pressure, characteristic of soft ferroelectric PZT. Just below the phase transformation pressure, the hysteresis loops took on an “S” shape, which split into a double hysteresis loop just above the phase transformation pressure. Far above the phase transformation pressure, when the applied electric field is insufficient to drive an antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation, the hysteresis loops collapse to linear dielectric behavior. Phase stability maps were generated from the experimental data at each of the temperature steps and used to form a three dimensional pressure–temperature–electric field phase diagram.« less
  • In situ measurements of electrostrictive strain and effective dielectric constant for two ferroelectric relaxor materials, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.9PMN {center dot} 0.1PT) and lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT 9.5/65/35), were performed in the temperature ranges near their respective mean Curie points under the variation of applied electric field. The measurement results show that the polarization-related electrostrictive coefficients Q{sub y} are not constant under variation of temperature and electric field. The data also support the idea that at temperatures far above the mean Curie point, there is still a substantial amount of micropolar domain.
  • Pb(Zr /SUB 0.525/ Ti /SUB 0.475/ )O3 piezoceramics, both unmodified and doped with 2 wt% Bi2O3 or Nb2O5, were prepared by the usual techniques, using sintering temperatures from 900 to 1250C. The microstructural data showed that the sintering temperature which produces minimum porosity is altered by the oxide additions. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the coexistence of both ferroelectric phases. The lattice parameter measurements showed that the tetragonal and rhombohedral unit cells of the two ferroelectric phases depend on the sintering temperature.
  • We have used resonance methods to determine the variation of all the independent piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric material coefficients, as well as the corresponding electromechanical coupling factors, of soft and hard doped piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics with compositions near the morphotropic phase boundary, as a function of temperature ranging between -165 and 195 degree sign C. The material coefficients were obtained by analyzing the fundamental resonance of the impedance or admittance spectra as a function of frequency for several sample resonance geometries. The piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33}, -d{sub 31}, and d{sub 15}, as well as the dielectric permittivitymore » coefficients {epsilon}{sub 11}{sup T} and {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup T}, generally increased with temperature for both soft and hard PZT samples. However, the elastic compliance coefficients s{sub 11}{sup E}, -s{sub 12}{sup E}, s{sub 33}{sup E}, and s{sub 55}{sup E} exhibited abnormal variations seen as broad peaks over parts of the tested temperature range. Additionally, thermal hystereses were observed in all the studied material coefficients over the temperature cycle. Finally, it was noted that, overall, the material coefficients of soft PZT varied significantly more than those of hard PZT under changing temperature conditions.« less