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Title: High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application

Abstract

High-loading and high quality PSU Si anode has been optimized and fabricated. The electrochemical performance has been utilized. The PSU Si-graphite anode exhibits the mass loading of 5.8 mg/cm2, charge capacity of 850 mAh/ g and good cycling performance. This optimized electrode has been used for full-cell fabrication. The performance enhancement of Ni-rich materials can be achieved by a diversity of strategies. Higher Mn content and a small amount of Al doping can improve the electrochemical performance by suppressing interfacial side reactions with electrolytes, thus greatly benefiting the cyclability of the samples. Also, surface coatings of Li-rich materials and AlF 3 are able to improve the performance stability of Ni-rich cathodes. One kilogram of optimized concentration-gradient LiNi 0.76Co 0.10Mn 0.14O 2 (CG) with careful control of composition, morphology and electrochemical performance was delivered to our collaborators. The sample achieved an initial specific capacity close to 190 mA h g -1 at C/10 rate and 180 mA h g -1 at C/3 rate as well as good cyclability in pouch full cells with a 4.4 V upper cut-off voltage at room temperature. Electrolyte additive with Si-N skeleton forms a less resistant SEI on the surface of silicon anode (from PSU) asmore » evidenced by the evolution of the impedance at various lithiation/de-lithiation stages and the cycling data The prelithiation result demonstrates a solution processing method to achieve large area, uniform SLMP coating on well-made anode surface for the prelithiation of lithium-ion batteries. The prelithiation effect with this method is applied both in graphite half cells, graphite/NMC full cells, SiO half cells, SiO/NMC full cells, Si-Graphite half cells and Si-Graphite/NMC full cells with improvements in cycle performance and higher first cycle coulombic efficiency than their corresponding cells without SLMP prelithiation. As to the full cell fabrication and test, full pouch cells with high capacity of 2.2 Ah and 1.2 Ah have been fabricated and delivered. The cells show great uniformity and good cycling performance. The prelithiation method effectively compensate the loss in the first cycle. The cell with high energy density and long-cycle life has been achieved.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
  3. EC Power LLC, State College, PA (United States)
  4. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
  5. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1356813
Report Number(s):
DOE-Penn State-6447
DOE Contract Number:
EE0006447
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE

Citation Formats

Wang, Donghai, Manthiram, Arumugam, Wang, Chao-Yang, Liu, Gao, and Zhang, Zhengcheng. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1356813.
Wang, Donghai, Manthiram, Arumugam, Wang, Chao-Yang, Liu, Gao, & Zhang, Zhengcheng. High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application. United States. doi:10.2172/1356813.
Wang, Donghai, Manthiram, Arumugam, Wang, Chao-Yang, Liu, Gao, and Zhang, Zhengcheng. 2017. "High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application". United States. doi:10.2172/1356813. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356813.
@article{osti_1356813,
title = {High Energy, Long Cycle Life Lithium-ion Batteries for PHEV Application},
author = {Wang, Donghai and Manthiram, Arumugam and Wang, Chao-Yang and Liu, Gao and Zhang, Zhengcheng},
abstractNote = {High-loading and high quality PSU Si anode has been optimized and fabricated. The electrochemical performance has been utilized. The PSU Si-graphite anode exhibits the mass loading of 5.8 mg/cm2, charge capacity of 850 mAh/ g and good cycling performance. This optimized electrode has been used for full-cell fabrication. The performance enhancement of Ni-rich materials can be achieved by a diversity of strategies. Higher Mn content and a small amount of Al doping can improve the electrochemical performance by suppressing interfacial side reactions with electrolytes, thus greatly benefiting the cyclability of the samples. Also, surface coatings of Li-rich materials and AlF3 are able to improve the performance stability of Ni-rich cathodes. One kilogram of optimized concentration-gradient LiNi0.76Co0.10Mn0.14O2 (CG) with careful control of composition, morphology and electrochemical performance was delivered to our collaborators. The sample achieved an initial specific capacity close to 190 mA h g-1 at C/10 rate and 180 mA h g-1 at C/3 rate as well as good cyclability in pouch full cells with a 4.4 V upper cut-off voltage at room temperature. Electrolyte additive with Si-N skeleton forms a less resistant SEI on the surface of silicon anode (from PSU) as evidenced by the evolution of the impedance at various lithiation/de-lithiation stages and the cycling data The prelithiation result demonstrates a solution processing method to achieve large area, uniform SLMP coating on well-made anode surface for the prelithiation of lithium-ion batteries. The prelithiation effect with this method is applied both in graphite half cells, graphite/NMC full cells, SiO half cells, SiO/NMC full cells, Si-Graphite half cells and Si-Graphite/NMC full cells with improvements in cycle performance and higher first cycle coulombic efficiency than their corresponding cells without SLMP prelithiation. As to the full cell fabrication and test, full pouch cells with high capacity of 2.2 Ah and 1.2 Ah have been fabricated and delivered. The cells show great uniformity and good cycling performance. The prelithiation method effectively compensate the loss in the first cycle. The cell with high energy density and long-cycle life has been achieved.},
doi = {10.2172/1356813},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Technical Report:

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  • FMC Lithium Division has successfully completed the project “Establishing Sustainable US PHEV/EV Manufacturing Base: Stabilized Lithium Metal Powder, Enabling Material and Revolutionary Technology for High Energy Li-ion Batteries”. The project included design, acquisition and process development for the production scale units to 1) produce stabilized lithium dispersions in oil medium, 2) to produce dry stabilized lithium metal powders, 3) to evaluate, design and acquire pilot-scale unit for alternative production technology to further decrease the cost, and 4) to demonstrate concepts for integrating SLMP technology into the Li- ion batteries to increase energy density. It is very difficult to satisfy safety,more » cost and performance requirements for the PHEV and EV applications. As the initial step in SLMP Technology introduction, industry can use commercially available LiMn2O4 or LiFePO4, for example, that are the only proven safer and cheaper lithium providing cathodes available on the market. Unfortunately, these cathodes alone are inferior to the energy density of the conventional LiCoO2 cathode and, even when paired with the advanced anode materials, such as silicon composite material, the resulting cell will still not meet the energy density requirements. We have demonstrated, however, if SLMP Technology is used to compensate for the irreversible capacity in the anode, the efficiency of the cathode utilization will be improved and the cost of the cell, based on the materials, will decrease.« less
  • One hundred seven commercially available, off-the-shelf, 1.2-Ah cells were tested for calendar life and CS cycle- and CD cycle-life using the new USABC PHEV Battery Test Manual. Here, the effects of temperature on calendar life, on CS cycle life, and on CD cycle life; the effects of SOC on calendar life and on CS cycle life; and the effects of rest time on CD cycle life were investigated. The results indicated that the test procedures caused performance decline in the cells in an expected manner, calendar < CS cycling < CD cycling. In some cases, the kinetic law changed withmore » test type, from linear-with-time to about t2. Additionally, temperature was found to stress the cells more than SOC, causing increased changes in performance with increasing temperature.« less
  • One hundred seven commercially available, off-the-shelf, 1.2-Ah cells were tested for calendar life and CS cycle- and CD cycle-life using the new USABC PHEV Battery Test Manual. Here, the effects of temperature on calendar life, on CS cycle life, and on CD cycle life; the effects of SOC on calendar life and on CS cycle life; and the effects of rest time on CD cycle life were investigated. The results indicated that the test procedures caused performance decline in the cells in an expected manner, calendar < CS cycling < CD cycling. In some cases, the kinetic law changed withmore » test type, from linear-with-time to about t2. Additionally, temperature was found to stress the cells more than SOC, causing increased changes in performance with increasing temperature.« less
  • Although lithium-oxygen batteries are attracting considerable attention because of potential for extremely high energy density, their practical use has been restricted due to a low energy efficiency and poor cycle life compared to lithium-ion batteries. Here we present a nanostructured cathode based on molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (Mo2C) dispersed on carbon nanotubes (CNT), which dramatically increase the electrical efficiency up to 88 % with a cycle life of more than 100 cycles. We found that the Mo2C nanoparticle catalysts contribute to the formation of a well-dispersed lithium peroxide nanolayers (Li2O2) on the Mo2C/CNTs with large contact area during oxygen reduction reactionmore » (ORR). This Li2O2 structure can be decomposed at low potential upon oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by avoiding the energy loss associated with the decomposition of the typical Li2O2 discharge products.« less
  • The ERADCOM nickel-zinc program, which is jointly funded by the Departments of Energy, Navy and Army, has resulted in the development of 5 ampere-hour nickel-zinc cells that have maintained 79% to 86% of initial capacity after 650 cycles on the C/3 80% DOD cycling regime. One cell is still delivering 70% of initial capacity after 880 cycles. This achievement is primarily due to the employment of an interrupted current (IC) charging mode on every cycle, the optimum frequency being 5 to 8 Hertz at a rest-to-pulse-ratio of 3/1, with charge control being by means of a GRL pressure switch attachedmore » to each cell at a cutoff pressure of 8 psig, and venting means at 10 psig. Design and performance characteristics of the battery are reported. (WHK)« less