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J.R. Oppenheimer and General Groves
Events People Places Processes Science Resources

Time Periods

1890s-1939:
Atomic Discoveries

1939-1942:
Early
Government Support

1942:
Difficult
Choices

1942-1944:
The Uranium
Path to
the Bomb

1942-1944:
The Plutonium
Path to
the Bomb

1942-1945:
Bringing It All Together

1945:
Dawn of the
Atomic Era

1945-present:
Postscript --
The Nuclear Age


Entrance to the Los Alamos "Tech Area"ESTABLISHING LOS ALAMOS
(Los Alamos: Laboratory, 1942-1943)
Events > Bringing it All Together, 1942-1945

Map of Los Alamos, New Mexico.The final link in the Manhattan Project's far-flung network was the bomb research and development laboratory at Los Alamos, located in the mountains of northern New Mexico.  Codenamed "Project Y," the laboratory that designed and fabricated the first atomic bombs began to take shape in spring 1942 when James Conant suggested to Vannevar Bush that the Office of Scientific and Research Development and the Army form a committee to study bomb development.  Bush agreed and forwarded the recommendation to Vice President Henry Wallace, Secretary of War Henry Stimson, and General George Marshall (the Top Policy Group).  By the time of his appointment in late September, Leslie Groves had orders to set up a committee to study military applications of the bomb.  Meanwhile, sentiment was growing among the Manhattan Project scientists that research on the bomb project needed to be better coordinated.  Robert Oppenheimer, among others, advocated a central facility where theoretical and experimental work could be conducted according to standard scientific protocols.  This would insure accuracy and speed progress.  Oppenheimer suggested that the bomb design laboratory operate secretly in an isolated area but allow free exchange of ideas among the scientists on the staff.  Groves accepted Oppenheimer's suggestion and began seeking an appropriate location.  By the end of the year, they had settled on an unlikely site for the laboratory: an isolated boys' school on a mesa high in the Jemez Mountains (map at left).  

Students playing hockey on Ashley Pond, Los Alamos Boys Ranch School.Groves selected Oppenheimer to head the new laboratory. He proved to be an excellent director despite initial concerns about his administrative inexperience, leftist political sympathies, and lack of a Nobel Prize when several scientists he would be directing were prizewinners.  Oppenheimer insisted, with some success, that scientists at Los Alamos remain as much an academic community as possible, and he proved adept at satisfying the emotional and intellectual needs of his highly distinguished staff.  Although Oppenheimer and Groves were of completely different temperaments, they worked well together.  The Groves-Oppenheimer alliance, though not one of intimacy, was marked by mutual respect and was a major factor in the success of the Manhattan Project.  

Ernest Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Isidor Rabi.Oppenheimer had a chance to display his persuasive abilities early when he had to convince scientists, many of them already deeply involved in war-related research in university laboratories, to join his new organization.  Complicating his task were initial plans to operate Los Alamos as a military laboratory.  Oppenheimer accepted Groves's rationale for this arrangement but feared that the military chain of command was ill-suited to scientific decision making and soon found that scientists objected to working as commissioned officers.  The issue came to a head when Oppenheimer tried to convince Robert F. Bacher and Isidor I. Rabi (far right in image at left) of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory to join the Los Alamos team.  Neither thought a military environment was conducive to scientific research.  At Oppenheimer's request, Conant and Groves wrote a letter explaining that the secret weapon-related research had presidential authority and was of the utmost national importance.  The letter promised that the laboratory would remain civilian through 1943, when it was believed that heightened security needs would require militarization of the final stages of the project (in fact, militarization never took place).  Oppenheimer would supervise all scientific work, and the military would maintain the post and provide security (below).

MP checking a resident's ID, Los Alamos.Oppenheimer spent the first three months of 1943 tirelessly crisscrossing the country in an attempt to put together a first-rate staff, an effort that proved highly successful.  Even Bacher signed on, though he promised to resign the moment militarization occurred; Rabi, though he did not move to Los Alamos, became a valuable consultant.  As soon as Oppenheimer arrived at Los Alamos in mid-March, recruits began arriving from universities across the United States, including California, Minnesota, Chicago, Princeton, Stanford, Purdue, Columbia, Iowa State, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, while still others came from the Met Lab and the National Bureau of Standards.  Virtually overnight Los Alamos became an ivory tower frontier boomtown, as scientists and their families, along with particle accelerators and other experimental equipment, including two Van de Graaff generators, a Cockroft-Walton machine, and a cyclotron, arrived caravan fashion at the Santa Fe railroad station and then made their way up to the mesa along the single primitive road.  The staff included many contemporary and future stars of the scientific community, including Luis Alvarez, Hans Bethe, Norris Bradbury, Enrico Fermi, Richard Feynman, Eric Jette, George Kistiakowsky, Seth Neddermeyer, John von Neumann, Emilio Segrè, Cyril Smith, Edward Teller, Victor Weisskopf, Robert Wilson, and many more.  In the spring of 1943, a sizeable contingent of British scientists arrived at Los Alamos as well.  It was a most remarkable collection of talent and machinery that settled this remote outpost of the Manhattan Project.

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Sources and notes for this page.

The text for this page was adapted from, and portions were taken directly from the Office of History and Heritage Resources publication: F. G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (DOE/MA-0001; Washington: History Division, Department of Energy, January 1999), 35, 37-38.  See also In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer: Transcript of Hearing Before Personnel Security Board, Washington, D.C., April 12, 1954, Through May 6, 1954 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1954), 12-13.  The list of staff at Los Alamos is adapted in part from "Dateline: Los Alamos," a special issue of the monthly publication of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (1995), 8.  The photograph of the "Tech Area" at Los Alamos is courtesy LANL.  The map of Los Alamos is reprinted from Vincent C. Jones, Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb, United States Army in World War II (Washington: Center of Military History, United States Army, 1988), 330.  The photograph of the students playing hockey on Ashley Pond is reprinted from "Dateline: Los Alamos," a special issue of the monthly publication of LANL (1995), 7.  The photograph of Ernest Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Isidore Rabi is courtesy LANL.  The photograph of the MP checking the resident's ID is reprinted in the photo insert of F. G. Gosling, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb (Washington: History Division, DOE, October 2001).

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