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Title: In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells

In this study, direct experimental materials science evidence of the important theoretical prediction for resistive random access memory (RRAM) technologies that a critical amount of oxygen vacancies is needed to establish stable resistive switching in metal-oxide-metal samples is presented. In detail, a novel in-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique is applied to non-destructively investigates the influence of the current compliance and direct current voltage sweep cycles on the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface chemistry and physics of resistive switching Ti/HfO{sub 2}/TiN cells. These studies indeed confirm that current compliance is a critical parameter to control the amount of oxygen vacancies in the conducting filaments in the oxide layer during the RRAM cell operation to achieve stable switching. Furthermore, clear carbon segregation towards the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface under electrical stress is visible. Since carbon impurities impact the oxygen vacancy defect population under resistive switching, this dynamic carbon segregation to the Ti/HfO{sub 2} interface is suspected to negatively influence RRAM device endurance. Therefore, these results indicate that the RRAM materials engineering needs to include all impurities in the dielectric layer in order to achieve reliable device performance.
Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4]
  1. IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)
  2. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)
  4. (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22304325
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 20; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CARBON; DEFECTS; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; DIRECT CURRENT; FILAMENTS; FORECASTING; HAFNIUM OXIDES; HARD X RADIATION; IMPURITIES; INTERFACES; LAYERS; OXYGEN; PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; RANDOMNESS; SEGREGATION; STRESSES; TITANIUM; TITANIUM NITRIDES; VACANCIES