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Title: China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018

Abstract

Abstract This paper summarizes and evaluates China’s policies toward the rare-earth industry from 1975 to 2018. We define five stages over this period and focus on China’s purpose, the underlying economic background in each stage, and the connections between stages. By reviewing a broad set of original policy documents, we find that the purpose of China’s policies has evolved, affected by the market players, the development of the mineral industry, and the state of the Chinese economy. Initially, the Chinese government encouraged the development of the upstream rare-earth sector. Since the early 1990s, China has focused on the development of downstream activities that use rare earths in the manufacture of intermediate and final products. Since the early 2000s, China has focused additionally on the problems of disorder in the rare-earth industry with particular reference to the environmental degradation caused by rare-earth production, as well as industrial reorganization to discourage unsanctioned production.

Authors:
; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1619383
Grant/Contract Number:  
401394
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Mineral Economics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Mineral Economics Journal Volume: 33 Journal Issue: 1-2; Journal ID: ISSN 2191-2203
Publisher:
Springer Science + Business Media
Country of Publication:
Country unknown/Code not available
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Shen, Yuzhou, Moomy, Ruthann, and Eggert, Roderick G. China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018. Country unknown/Code not available: N. p., 2020. Web. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2.
Shen, Yuzhou, Moomy, Ruthann, & Eggert, Roderick G. China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018. Country unknown/Code not available. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2
Shen, Yuzhou, Moomy, Ruthann, and Eggert, Roderick G. Tue . "China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018". Country unknown/Code not available. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2.
@article{osti_1619383,
title = {China’s public policies toward rare earths, 1975–2018},
author = {Shen, Yuzhou and Moomy, Ruthann and Eggert, Roderick G.},
abstractNote = {Abstract This paper summarizes and evaluates China’s policies toward the rare-earth industry from 1975 to 2018. We define five stages over this period and focus on China’s purpose, the underlying economic background in each stage, and the connections between stages. By reviewing a broad set of original policy documents, we find that the purpose of China’s policies has evolved, affected by the market players, the development of the mineral industry, and the state of the Chinese economy. Initially, the Chinese government encouraged the development of the upstream rare-earth sector. Since the early 1990s, China has focused on the development of downstream activities that use rare earths in the manufacture of intermediate and final products. Since the early 2000s, China has focused additionally on the problems of disorder in the rare-earth industry with particular reference to the environmental degradation caused by rare-earth production, as well as industrial reorganization to discourage unsanctioned production.},
doi = {10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2},
journal = {Mineral Economics},
number = 1-2,
volume = 33,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13563-019-00214-2

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Works referenced in this record:

The impact of unregulated ionic clay rare earth mining in China
journal, June 2016


Rare earth elements in China: Policies and narratives of reinventing an industry
journal, September 2013


China's ion-adsorption rare earth resources, mining consequences and preservation
journal, October 2013


China’s Rare Earth Supply Chain: Illegal Production, and Response to new Cerium Demand
journal, March 2016


Vertical vs. horizontal integration: Game analysis for the rare earth industrial integration in China
journal, December 2016