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Title: A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market

Abstract

The year 2015 marks a turning point in China s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) or new energy vehicle (NEV) industry, with an explosive growth in both productions and sales, following the gloomy period of 2009-2012. The PEV production in 2015 reached a record level of nearly 380,000 units, a 352 % increase from 2014, making China the largest PEV market in the world. For the potential implications on energy and the environment, it is worth studying the driving forces of China s PEV market and understanding its future trajectory and dynamics. The key findings of this report are listed in the following. Though controversial, the government monetary incentives have played a significant role to impel China to be the largest light PEV (191,100 units) market in the world. Chinese vehicle buyers appear more price sensitive on PEVs. Inexpensive low-cost micro electric vehicles are the most popular vehicle model in China s PEV market (38.9 % of the PEV market in 2015). In contrast, the premium or luxury vehicles are more popular in the gasoline vehicle segment. In fact, China is expected to be the largest premium car market in 2016. The PEV sales growth is primarily possible because of themore » young domestic private-owned auto manufacturers, which are mostly located in south China. Top-tier conventional vehicle automakers in China appear to be less proactive in the PEV market, based on market shares. This is in clear contrast to the U.S. market, where major automakers are generally the primary players in the PEV market. The PEVs produced by the domestic automakers are concentrated in the low-end market segment, while the high-end vehicle segment is dominated by the foreign brands. At present, the substantial market growth and government subsidies afford the domestic entrants to quickly gain profits in the low-end segment. The PEV consumers in China are very sensitive to the vehicle price, thus prefer the PEVs with cheaper prices after government subsidies, and care less about the driving quality and comfort. In contrast, most PEV consumers in the United States (U.S.) have higher incomes, view the PEVs as a high-status symbol, and care less about the vehicle prices, and therefore welcome the premium PEVs more in the U.S. The PEV financial subsidies by the Chinese government are divided into three stages based on the strategic directions and policies. In 2009 2012, government incentives concentrated on the public fleet vehicles, while excluding the individual consumers from the subsidies in most cities. In 2013 2015, comprehensive central/local government incentives were extended to all vehicle purchasers including the individual buyers in most cities, which was conducive to the phenomenal growth of the PEV sales. For years 2016 to 2020, monetary incentives are being phased out and will be substituted by other non-monetary incentives (such as the standards for Chinese Cooperate Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credits) for the sustainable development of the PEV market. The PEV subsidy fraud has drawn attention by the central government, which prompts the government to be more prudent about monetary incentives. With the advantage of high acceptance in the PEV market and integrated EV charging infrastructure, the region with better economic development brings a more aggressive PEV roll-out plan to the municipalities who are more willing to solve the local urban pollution while keeping the automotive market in sustainable growth. On the one hand, the local automakers are offered abundant subsidies from the Chinese government to those who intend to help the Chinese automotive industry seize the industrial upgrading opportunity to transform its manufacturing sector, and they have taken most shares of the PEV market. On the other hand, facing the trade barriers, the foreign automakers have dominated the premium PEV sales in China, although their total market shares in the PEV market are much less than the domestic automakers. In diverse selectable alternative fuel vehicle technologies, China has put its focus on the PEV technologies for the technological modernization in the automotive industry; the research and development in fuel cell vehicle technologies in China is less competitive compared with other countries such as Japan and the U.S. With the demand of batteries from the PEV automakers, the Chinese EV battery industry is aggressively expanding. It has risks in excessive production capacity, and faces the challenges from the competitors from Japan and South Korea.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin China
  3. China Automotive Technology and Research Center, Tianjin (China)
  4. Aramco Services Company, Novi, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1341568
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/750
453060031
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS

Citation Formats

Ou, Shawn, Lin, Zhenhong, Wu, Zhixin, Zheng, Jihu, Lyu, Renzhi, Przesmitzki, Steven V., and He, Xin. A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1341568.
Ou, Shawn, Lin, Zhenhong, Wu, Zhixin, Zheng, Jihu, Lyu, Renzhi, Przesmitzki, Steven V., & He, Xin. A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market. United States. doi:10.2172/1341568.
Ou, Shawn, Lin, Zhenhong, Wu, Zhixin, Zheng, Jihu, Lyu, Renzhi, Przesmitzki, Steven V., and He, Xin. Sun . "A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market". United States. doi:10.2172/1341568. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1341568.
@article{osti_1341568,
title = {A Study of China s Explosive Growth in the Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market},
author = {Ou, Shawn and Lin, Zhenhong and Wu, Zhixin and Zheng, Jihu and Lyu, Renzhi and Przesmitzki, Steven V. and He, Xin},
abstractNote = {The year 2015 marks a turning point in China s plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) or new energy vehicle (NEV) industry, with an explosive growth in both productions and sales, following the gloomy period of 2009-2012. The PEV production in 2015 reached a record level of nearly 380,000 units, a 352 % increase from 2014, making China the largest PEV market in the world. For the potential implications on energy and the environment, it is worth studying the driving forces of China s PEV market and understanding its future trajectory and dynamics. The key findings of this report are listed in the following. Though controversial, the government monetary incentives have played a significant role to impel China to be the largest light PEV (191,100 units) market in the world. Chinese vehicle buyers appear more price sensitive on PEVs. Inexpensive low-cost micro electric vehicles are the most popular vehicle model in China s PEV market (38.9 % of the PEV market in 2015). In contrast, the premium or luxury vehicles are more popular in the gasoline vehicle segment. In fact, China is expected to be the largest premium car market in 2016. The PEV sales growth is primarily possible because of the young domestic private-owned auto manufacturers, which are mostly located in south China. Top-tier conventional vehicle automakers in China appear to be less proactive in the PEV market, based on market shares. This is in clear contrast to the U.S. market, where major automakers are generally the primary players in the PEV market. The PEVs produced by the domestic automakers are concentrated in the low-end market segment, while the high-end vehicle segment is dominated by the foreign brands. At present, the substantial market growth and government subsidies afford the domestic entrants to quickly gain profits in the low-end segment. The PEV consumers in China are very sensitive to the vehicle price, thus prefer the PEVs with cheaper prices after government subsidies, and care less about the driving quality and comfort. In contrast, most PEV consumers in the United States (U.S.) have higher incomes, view the PEVs as a high-status symbol, and care less about the vehicle prices, and therefore welcome the premium PEVs more in the U.S. The PEV financial subsidies by the Chinese government are divided into three stages based on the strategic directions and policies. In 2009 2012, government incentives concentrated on the public fleet vehicles, while excluding the individual consumers from the subsidies in most cities. In 2013 2015, comprehensive central/local government incentives were extended to all vehicle purchasers including the individual buyers in most cities, which was conducive to the phenomenal growth of the PEV sales. For years 2016 to 2020, monetary incentives are being phased out and will be substituted by other non-monetary incentives (such as the standards for Chinese Cooperate Average Fuel Consumption and New Energy Vehicle Credits) for the sustainable development of the PEV market. The PEV subsidy fraud has drawn attention by the central government, which prompts the government to be more prudent about monetary incentives. With the advantage of high acceptance in the PEV market and integrated EV charging infrastructure, the region with better economic development brings a more aggressive PEV roll-out plan to the municipalities who are more willing to solve the local urban pollution while keeping the automotive market in sustainable growth. On the one hand, the local automakers are offered abundant subsidies from the Chinese government to those who intend to help the Chinese automotive industry seize the industrial upgrading opportunity to transform its manufacturing sector, and they have taken most shares of the PEV market. On the other hand, facing the trade barriers, the foreign automakers have dominated the premium PEV sales in China, although their total market shares in the PEV market are much less than the domestic automakers. In diverse selectable alternative fuel vehicle technologies, China has put its focus on the PEV technologies for the technological modernization in the automotive industry; the research and development in fuel cell vehicle technologies in China is less competitive compared with other countries such as Japan and the U.S. With the demand of batteries from the PEV automakers, the Chinese EV battery industry is aggressively expanding. It has risks in excessive production capacity, and faces the challenges from the competitors from Japan and South Korea.},
doi = {10.2172/1341568},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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