skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on March 9, 2021

Title: Drivers for the cracking of multilayer polyamide‐based backsheets in field photovoltaic modules: In‐depth degradation mapping analysis

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Engineering LaboratoryNational Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Gaithersburg MD 20899 USA
  2. Fluoropolymers R&,DArkema King of Prussia PA 19406 USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1603804
Grant/Contract Number:  
[DE‐EE0007143]
Resource Type:
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Progress in Photovoltaics
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Progress in Photovoltaics]; Journal ID: ISSN 1062-7995
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Lyu, Yadong, Fairbrother, Andrew, Gong, Mengyan, Kim, Jae Hyun, Hauser, Adam, O'Brien, Greg, and Gu, Xiaohong. Drivers for the cracking of multilayer polyamide‐based backsheets in field photovoltaic modules: In‐depth degradation mapping analysis. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1002/pip.3260.
Lyu, Yadong, Fairbrother, Andrew, Gong, Mengyan, Kim, Jae Hyun, Hauser, Adam, O'Brien, Greg, & Gu, Xiaohong. Drivers for the cracking of multilayer polyamide‐based backsheets in field photovoltaic modules: In‐depth degradation mapping analysis. United Kingdom. doi:10.1002/pip.3260.
Lyu, Yadong, Fairbrother, Andrew, Gong, Mengyan, Kim, Jae Hyun, Hauser, Adam, O'Brien, Greg, and Gu, Xiaohong. Mon . "Drivers for the cracking of multilayer polyamide‐based backsheets in field photovoltaic modules: In‐depth degradation mapping analysis". United Kingdom. doi:10.1002/pip.3260.
@article{osti_1603804,
title = {Drivers for the cracking of multilayer polyamide‐based backsheets in field photovoltaic modules: In‐depth degradation mapping analysis},
author = {Lyu, Yadong and Fairbrother, Andrew and Gong, Mengyan and Kim, Jae Hyun and Hauser, Adam and O'Brien, Greg and Gu, Xiaohong},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/pip.3260},
journal = {Progress in Photovoltaics},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on March 9, 2021
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Life prediction for CIGS solar modules part 1: modeling moisture ingress and degradation: Modeling moisture ingress and degradation
journal, October 2011

  • Coyle, Dennis J.
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 21, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.1172

Correlation of the loss in photovoltaic module performance with the ageing behaviour of the backsheets used: Influence of backsheet on photovoltaic module performance
journal, January 2015

  • Voronko, Yuliya; Eder, Gabriele C.; Knausz, Marlene
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 23, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2580

Fluorescence of polyolefins—I. Effect of thermal degradation on fluorescent excitation and emission spectra
journal, January 1993


Differential degradation patterns of photovoltaic backsheets at the array level
journal, March 2018


Use of indentation to study the degradation of photovoltaic backsheets
journal, October 2019

  • Miller, David C.; Owen-Bellini, Michael; Hacke, Peter L.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 201
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2019.110082

Assessment of PV module durability using accelerated and outdoor performance analysis and comparisons
conference, June 2014

  • Gambogi, William J.; Heta, Yushi; Kopchick, James G.
  • 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925356

Relation between degradation of polymeric components in crystalline silicon PV module and climatic conditions: A literature review
journal, April 2019


A novel test method for quantifying cracking propensity of photovoltaic backsheets after ultraviolet exposure
journal, July 2018

  • Lin, Chiao-Chi; Lyu, Yadong; Jacobs, Deborah S.
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 27, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.3038

A new kinetic model for predicting polyamide 6-6 hydrolysis and its mechanical embrittlement
journal, June 2012


Study on snail trail formation in PV module through modeling and accelerated aging tests
journal, May 2017


FT–IR spectroscopic study on the photo- and photooxidative degradation of nylons
journal, August 1987

  • Do, C. H.; Pearce, E. M.; Bulkin, B. J.
  • Journal of Polymer Science Part A: Polymer Chemistry, Vol. 25, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1002/pola.1987.080250826

Comparison of different microclimate effects on the aging behavior of encapsulation materials used in photovoltaic modules
journal, April 2017


Evaluation of moisture ingress from the perimeter of photovoltaic modules
journal, May 2013

  • Kempe, Michael D.; Dameron, Arrelaine A.; Reese, Matthew O.
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 22, Issue 11, p. 1159-1171
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2374

Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials for concentrating photovoltaic systems: Durability of polymeric encapsulation materials
journal, January 2012

  • Miller, David C.; Muller, Matthew T.; Kempe, Michael D.
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.1241

Combined-Accelerated Stress Testing System for Photovoltaic Modules
conference, June 2018

  • Spataru, Sergiu; Hacke, Peter; Owen-Bellini, Michael
  • 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547335

Error analysis of aged modules with cracked polyamide backsheets
journal, December 2019


Categorization of weathering stresses for photovoltaic modules
journal, April 2018

  • Koehl, Michael; Heck, Markus; Wiesmeier, Stefan
  • Energy Science & Engineering, Vol. 6, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/ese3.189

Influence of temperature and stabilization on oxygen diffusion limited oxidation profiles of polyamide 6
journal, August 2016


Photooxidative behaviour of polyethylene/polyamide-6 blends
journal, April 2010


Modeling Outdoor Service Lifetime Prediction of PV Modules: Effects of Combined Climatic Stressors on PV Module Power Degradation
journal, July 2019


Acetic acid production and glass transition concerns with ethylene-vinyl acetate used in photovoltaic devices
journal, February 2007

  • Kempe, Michael D.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Terwilliger, Kent M.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 91, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2006.10.009

Sequential Stress Testing to Predict Photovoltaic Module Durability
conference, June 2018

  • Gambogi, William; Felder, Thomas; MacMaster, Steven
  • 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547260

Kinetics of degradation-induced polymer luminescence: Polyamide under dry heat exposure
journal, June 2017


Gradient of nanomechanical properties in the interphase of cellulose nanocrystal composites
journal, January 2012


Acetic acid permeation through photovoltaic backsheets: Influence of the composition on the permeation rate
journal, July 2017


Photochemistry of aliphatic polyamides. 4. Mechanisms of photooxidation of polyamides 6, 11, and 12 at long wavelengths
journal, May 1986

  • Roger, Agnes; Sallet, Daniel; Lemaire, Jacques
  • Macromolecules, Vol. 19, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/ma00157a015

Evaluation of damp-heat testing of photovoltaic modules: Evaluation of damp-heat testing of photovoltaic modules
journal, November 2016

  • Koehl, Michael; Hoffmann, Stephan; Wiesmeier, Stefan
  • Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, Vol. 25, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/pip.2842

Photovoltaic Module Qualification Plus Testing
conference, June 2014

  • Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah
  • Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th, p. 3589-3594
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924883

Fluorescence of polyolefins—2. Use of model compounds to identify fluorescent species in thermally degraded polymers
journal, January 1993


Crystalline transition behaviors of nylons 12 20 and 10 20
journal, June 2003


Investigation of polyamide 11 embrittlement during oxidative degradation
journal, January 2016


PV Module Durability -connecting field results, accelerated testing, and materials
conference, June 2017

  • Trout, T. John; Gambogi, W.; Felder, T.
  • 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366321

The use of the PeakForce TM quantitative nanomechanical mapping AFM-based method for high-resolution Young's modulus measurement of polymers
journal, October 2011


Comparison of breakdown-voltage of contemporary and veteran photovoltaic backsheets
journal, April 2019


Degradation Mechanism of Benzodithiophene-Based Conjugated Polymers when Exposed to Light in Air
journal, May 2012

  • Alem, Salima; Wakim, Salem; Lu, Jianping
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 4, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1021/am300362b

Depth profiling of degradation of multilayer photovoltaic backsheets after accelerated laboratory weathering: Cross-sectional Raman imaging
journal, January 2016

  • Lin, Chiao-Chi; Krommenhoek, Peter J.; Watson, Stephanie S.
  • Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 144
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.09.021

Encapsulation of PV modules using ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer as a pottant: A critical review
journal, September 1996


Cross-infection in thermo-oxidation of polymers
journal, March 2019


Enhancing Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells to Moisture by the Facile Hydrophobic Passivation
journal, July 2015

  • Hwang, Insung; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 7, Issue 31
  • DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b04490

Polymer ageing: physics, chemistry or engineering? Time to reflect
journal, November 2006


Ageing of polyamide 11 used in the manufacture of flexible piping
journal, November 2009

  • Romão, Wanderson; Castro, Eustáquio V. R.; Filho, Elói A. S.
  • Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 114, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1002/app.30793

A non-destructive method for crack quantification in photovoltaic backsheets under accelerated and real-world exposures
journal, July 2018


Constraint Effects on Thin Film Channel Cracking Behavior
journal, September 2005

  • Tsui, Ting Y.; McKerrow, Andrew J.; Vlassak, Joost J.
  • Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 20, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2005.0317

Polyamide hydrolysis accelerated by small weak organic acids
journal, September 2014


Modulus and Chemical Mapping of Multilayer Coatings
journal, February 2009

  • Forster, Aaron M.; Michaels, Chris A.; Sung, Lipiin
  • ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, Vol. 1, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1021/am800152x

The effect of moisture on the degradation mechanism of multi-crystalline silicon photovoltaic module
journal, September 2013


An experimental approach to investigate behaviors of crack formation of PV backsheets
conference, June 2018

  • Kim, Jae Hyun; Lyu, Yadong; Fairbrother, Andrew
  • 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC)
  • DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547443

Thermomechanical stress in solar cells: Contact pad modeling and reliability analysis
journal, July 2019


Molecular weight distribution and mass changes during polyamide hydrolysis
journal, January 1998