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Title: Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea observed using GNSS

Abstract

SUMMARY Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea have amplitudes of 15–20 cm as observed using various techniques such as tide gauges, satellite altimetry and recently Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. In this study, we demonstrate that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations can also be used to measure the effect of these sea level variations. The extra water mass presses on the seafloor, which causes horizontal and vertical deformations. Using time-series from 10 coastal GNSS stations, we observe annual horizontal and vertical loading displacements with amplitudes of 2–5 mm. When correcting for atmospheric, hydrological and surface water loading and a residual geocentre motion, significant annual signals of approximately 0.5 and 2 mm are still observed for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In the northern Red Sea, the observed annual signals and predicted annual sea level loading show good agreement. This confirms that the signal is mostly a result of the variations in water mass and thermal expansion. Furthermore, we conclude that the uncertainties in the hydrological model over Ethiopia and Eritrea influence the loading over the southern Red Sea, which was underestimated in previous studies using GRACE data.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3]
  1. King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Space and Aeronaoutics Institute, Geodesy and Navigation Center, KACST, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
  2. Universidade da Beira interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal, Instituto Dom Luiz (IDL), Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
  3. National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, 11421, Box 138, Helwan, Egypt
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
1601519
Grant/Contract Number:  
[IDL-FCT-UID/GEO/50019/2019]
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Geophysical Journal International
Additional Journal Information:
[Journal Name: Geophysical Journal International Journal Volume: 221 Journal Issue: 2]; Journal ID: ISSN 0956-540X
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Alothman, A. O., Bos, M., Fernandes, R., Radwan, Ali M., and Rashwan, M. Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea observed using GNSS. United Kingdom: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.1093/gji/ggaa032.
Alothman, A. O., Bos, M., Fernandes, R., Radwan, Ali M., & Rashwan, M. Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea observed using GNSS. United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/gji/ggaa032.
Alothman, A. O., Bos, M., Fernandes, R., Radwan, Ali M., and Rashwan, M. Tue . "Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea observed using GNSS". United Kingdom. doi:10.1093/gji/ggaa032.
@article{osti_1601519,
title = {Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea observed using GNSS},
author = {Alothman, A. O. and Bos, M. and Fernandes, R. and Radwan, Ali M. and Rashwan, M.},
abstractNote = {SUMMARY Annual sea level variations in the Red Sea have amplitudes of 15–20 cm as observed using various techniques such as tide gauges, satellite altimetry and recently Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite data. In this study, we demonstrate that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations can also be used to measure the effect of these sea level variations. The extra water mass presses on the seafloor, which causes horizontal and vertical deformations. Using time-series from 10 coastal GNSS stations, we observe annual horizontal and vertical loading displacements with amplitudes of 2–5 mm. When correcting for atmospheric, hydrological and surface water loading and a residual geocentre motion, significant annual signals of approximately 0.5 and 2 mm are still observed for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. In the northern Red Sea, the observed annual signals and predicted annual sea level loading show good agreement. This confirms that the signal is mostly a result of the variations in water mass and thermal expansion. Furthermore, we conclude that the uncertainties in the hydrological model over Ethiopia and Eritrea influence the loading over the southern Red Sea, which was underestimated in previous studies using GRACE data.},
doi = {10.1093/gji/ggaa032},
journal = {Geophysical Journal International},
number = [2],
volume = [221],
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {2020},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
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DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggaa032

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