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Title: Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing

Abstract

Permanent magnets without rare earth (RE) elements, such as alnico, will improve supply stability and potentially decrease permanent magnet cost, especially for traction drive motors and other increased temperature applications. Commercial alnico magnets with the highest energy product are produced by directional solidification (DS) to achieve a < 001 > columnar grain orientation followed by significant final machining, adding to the high cost. Additive manufacturing (AM) is an effective method to process near net-shape parts with minimal final machining of complex geometries. AM also, has potential for texture/grain orientation control and compositionally graded structures. This report describes fabrication of alnico magnets by AM using both laser engineered net shaping (LENS)/directed energy deposition (DED) and electron beam melting powder bed fusion (EBM/PBF). High pressure gas atomized (HPGA) pre-alloyed alnico powders, with high purity and sphericity, were built into cylindrical and rectangular samples, followed by magnetic annealing (MA) and a full heat treatment (FHT). The magnetic properties of these AM processed specimens were different from their cast and sintered counterparts of the same composition and show a great sensitivity to heat treatment. The AM process parameters used in this developmental study did not yet result in any preferred texture within the alnicomore » AM builds. These findings demonstrate feasibility for near net-shape processing of alnico permanent magnets for use in next generation traction drive motors and other applications requiring increased operating temperatures and/or complex engineered part geometries, especially with further AM process development for texture control.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4]
  1. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
  2. Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
  3. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)
  4. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V)
OSTI Identifier:
1577119
Report Number(s):
IS-J-10086
Journal ID: ISSN 2076-3417; ASPCC7
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11358
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied Sciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 22; Journal ID: ISSN 2076-3417
Publisher:
MDPI
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; additive manufacturing; permanent magnets; alnico

Citation Formats

White, Emma, Rinko, Emily, Prost, Timothy, Horn, Timothy, Ledford, Christopher, Rock, Christopher, and Anderson, Iver. Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3390/app9224843.
White, Emma, Rinko, Emily, Prost, Timothy, Horn, Timothy, Ledford, Christopher, Rock, Christopher, & Anderson, Iver. Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing. United States. doi:10.3390/app9224843.
White, Emma, Rinko, Emily, Prost, Timothy, Horn, Timothy, Ledford, Christopher, Rock, Christopher, and Anderson, Iver. Tue . "Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing". United States. doi:10.3390/app9224843. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1577119.
@article{osti_1577119,
title = {Processing of Alnico Magnets by Additive Manufacturing},
author = {White, Emma and Rinko, Emily and Prost, Timothy and Horn, Timothy and Ledford, Christopher and Rock, Christopher and Anderson, Iver},
abstractNote = {Permanent magnets without rare earth (RE) elements, such as alnico, will improve supply stability and potentially decrease permanent magnet cost, especially for traction drive motors and other increased temperature applications. Commercial alnico magnets with the highest energy product are produced by directional solidification (DS) to achieve a < 001 > columnar grain orientation followed by significant final machining, adding to the high cost. Additive manufacturing (AM) is an effective method to process near net-shape parts with minimal final machining of complex geometries. AM also, has potential for texture/grain orientation control and compositionally graded structures. This report describes fabrication of alnico magnets by AM using both laser engineered net shaping (LENS)/directed energy deposition (DED) and electron beam melting powder bed fusion (EBM/PBF). High pressure gas atomized (HPGA) pre-alloyed alnico powders, with high purity and sphericity, were built into cylindrical and rectangular samples, followed by magnetic annealing (MA) and a full heat treatment (FHT). The magnetic properties of these AM processed specimens were different from their cast and sintered counterparts of the same composition and show a great sensitivity to heat treatment. The AM process parameters used in this developmental study did not yet result in any preferred texture within the alnico AM builds. These findings demonstrate feasibility for near net-shape processing of alnico permanent magnets for use in next generation traction drive motors and other applications requiring increased operating temperatures and/or complex engineered part geometries, especially with further AM process development for texture control.},
doi = {10.3390/app9224843},
journal = {Applied Sciences},
number = 22,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

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