skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

This content will become publicly available on November 2, 2020

Title: RDX solubility in TNT at high temperatures

Abstract

The solubility of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-tri-nitro-1,3,5-triazine) in TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) at elevated temperatures is required to accurately predict the response of Comp-B 3 (60:40 RDX:TNT) during accidents involving fire. As the temperature increases, the TNT component melts, the RDX partially dissolves in the liquid TNT, and the remaining RDX melts (203 °C) as the Comp-B thermally ignites. In the current work, we used a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to estimate the solubility of RDX in TNT at the melting point of RDX. Most DSC measurements of Comp-B 3 do not show an RDX melt endotherm. The absence of an endotherm associated with the RDX melt has been interpreted as RDX being completely dissolved in TNT before reaching the melting point. Here, we have observed that the endotherm is not absent, but is masked by exothermic reactions occurring at these elevated temperatures. We have inhibited the exothermic reactions by venting our DSC samples and measuring the RDX melt endotherm in our Comp-B 3 samples at about 203 °C. Using the measured heat flow associated with the RDX melt and the latent melting enthalpy of RDX, we have approximated the solubility of RDX in TNT to be roughly 50–100 g RDX per 100 gmore » TNT. The broad range is based on corrections for exothermic reactions occurring as the RDX melts.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component Science, Engineering, and Production
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energetic Systems Research Dept.
  4. Air Force Research Lab., Eglin AFB (United States). Munitions Directorate, Ordnance Division, Energetic Materials Branch
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1574437
Report Number(s):
SAND-2019-12453J
Journal ID: ISSN 1388-6150; 680374
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry; Journal ID: ISSN 1388-6150
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
TG/DSC; RDX; TNT; Comp-B3; Solubility; Cookoff

Citation Formats

Hobbs, Michael L., Kaneshige, Michael J., Todd, Steven N., and Krawietz, Thomas R. RDX solubility in TNT at high temperatures. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1007/s10973-019-08924-z.
Hobbs, Michael L., Kaneshige, Michael J., Todd, Steven N., & Krawietz, Thomas R. RDX solubility in TNT at high temperatures. United States. doi:10.1007/s10973-019-08924-z.
Hobbs, Michael L., Kaneshige, Michael J., Todd, Steven N., and Krawietz, Thomas R. Sat . "RDX solubility in TNT at high temperatures". United States. doi:10.1007/s10973-019-08924-z.
@article{osti_1574437,
title = {RDX solubility in TNT at high temperatures},
author = {Hobbs, Michael L. and Kaneshige, Michael J. and Todd, Steven N. and Krawietz, Thomas R.},
abstractNote = {The solubility of RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-tri-nitro-1,3,5-triazine) in TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene) at elevated temperatures is required to accurately predict the response of Comp-B3 (60:40 RDX:TNT) during accidents involving fire. As the temperature increases, the TNT component melts, the RDX partially dissolves in the liquid TNT, and the remaining RDX melts (203 °C) as the Comp-B thermally ignites. In the current work, we used a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to estimate the solubility of RDX in TNT at the melting point of RDX. Most DSC measurements of Comp-B3 do not show an RDX melt endotherm. The absence of an endotherm associated with the RDX melt has been interpreted as RDX being completely dissolved in TNT before reaching the melting point. Here, we have observed that the endotherm is not absent, but is masked by exothermic reactions occurring at these elevated temperatures. We have inhibited the exothermic reactions by venting our DSC samples and measuring the RDX melt endotherm in our Comp-B3 samples at about 203 °C. Using the measured heat flow associated with the RDX melt and the latent melting enthalpy of RDX, we have approximated the solubility of RDX in TNT to be roughly 50–100 gRDX per 100 gTNT. The broad range is based on corrections for exothermic reactions occurring as the RDX melts.},
doi = {10.1007/s10973-019-08924-z},
journal = {Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on November 2, 2020
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share: