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Title: Additive Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells

Abstract

Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached a certified 25.2% efficiency in 2019 due to their high absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, long diffusion length, and tunable direct bandgap. However, due to the nature of solution processing and rapid crystal growth of perovskite thin films, a variety of defects can form as a result of the precursor compositions and processing conditions. The use of additives can affect perovskite crystallization and film formation, defect passivation in the bulk and/or at the surface, as well as influence the interface tuning of structure and energetics. Here, recent progress in additive engineering during perovskite film formation is discussed according to the following common categories: Lewis acid (e.g., metal cations, fullerene derivatives), Lewis base based on the donor type (e.g., O-donor, S-donor, and N-donor), ammonium salts, low-dimensional perovskites, and ionic liquid. Various additive-assisted strategies for interface optimization are then summarized; additives include modifiers to improve electron- and hole-transport layers as well as those to modify perovskite surface properties. To conclude, an outlook is provided on research trends with respect to additive engineering in PSC development.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Chemistry and Nanoscience Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1570188
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1569293
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5900-74576
Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832; MainId:19903;UUID:a0ddcd93-caba-e911-9c24-ac162d87dfe5;MainAdminID:8380
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; additives; Lewis acid; perovskite solar cells; stability; defect passivation

Citation Formats

Zhang, Fei, and Zhu, Kai. Additive Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902579.
Zhang, Fei, & Zhu, Kai. Additive Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902579.
Zhang, Fei, and Zhu, Kai. Fri . "Additive Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201902579. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1570188.
@article{osti_1570188,
title = {Additive Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells},
author = {Zhang, Fei and Zhu, Kai},
abstractNote = {Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached a certified 25.2% efficiency in 2019 due to their high absorption coefficient, high carrier mobility, long diffusion length, and tunable direct bandgap. However, due to the nature of solution processing and rapid crystal growth of perovskite thin films, a variety of defects can form as a result of the precursor compositions and processing conditions. The use of additives can affect perovskite crystallization and film formation, defect passivation in the bulk and/or at the surface, as well as influence the interface tuning of structure and energetics. Here, recent progress in additive engineering during perovskite film formation is discussed according to the following common categories: Lewis acid (e.g., metal cations, fullerene derivatives), Lewis base based on the donor type (e.g., O-donor, S-donor, and N-donor), ammonium salts, low-dimensional perovskites, and ionic liquid. Various additive-assisted strategies for interface optimization are then summarized; additives include modifiers to improve electron- and hole-transport layers as well as those to modify perovskite surface properties. To conclude, an outlook is provided on research trends with respect to additive engineering in PSC development.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201902579},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = 13,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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Caffeine Improves the Performance and Thermal Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells
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Stable High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells via Grain Boundary Passivation
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Synthesis and vibrational spectra of some lead(II) halide adducts with O-, S-, and N-donor atom ligands
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Enhanced Photoluminescence and Solar Cell Performance via Lewis Base Passivation of Organic–Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskites
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Surface Electronic Modification of Perovskite Thin Film with Water-Resistant Electron Delocalized Molecules for Stable and Efficient Photovoltaics
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Polymer-Passivated Inorganic Cesium Lead Mixed-Halide Perovskites for Stable and Efficient Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage over 1.3 V
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Tailored Phase Conversion under Conjugated Polymer Enables Thermally Stable Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 21%
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Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Monolithically Grained CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Film
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Effects of thiourea on the perovskite crystallization for fully printable solar cells
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Excellent Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells by Passivation Engineering
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Suppressing defects through the synergistic effect of a Lewis base and a Lewis acid for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
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Tuning the crystal growth of perovskite thin-films by adding the 2-pyridylthiourea additive for highly efficient and stable solar cells prepared in ambient air
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Suppressing defects through thiadiazole derivatives that modulate CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 crystal growth for highly stable perovskite solar cells under dark conditions
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Efficient Defect Passivation for Perovskite Solar Cells by Controlling the Electron Density Distribution of Donor‐π‐Acceptor Molecules
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Stabilization of Precursor Solution and Perovskite Layer by Addition of Sulfur
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Fused-Ring Electron Acceptor ITIC-Th: A Novel Stabilizer for Halide Perovskite Precursor Solution
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Pyridine solvent engineering for high quality anion-cation-mixed hybrid and high performance of perovskite solar cells
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Incorporating 4- tert -Butylpyridine in an Antisolvent: A Facile Approach to Obtain Highly Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
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Polymer-modified halide perovskite films for efficient and stable planar heterojunction solar cells
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Bilateral alkylamine for suppressing charge recombination and improving stability in blade-coated perovskite solar cells
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Enhanced stability and optoelectronic properties of MAPbI 3 films by a cationic surface-active agent for perovskite solar cells
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Tailoring Passivation Molecular Structures for Extremely Small Open-Circuit Voltage Loss in Perovskite Solar Cells
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Surface & grain boundary co-passivation by fluorocarbon based bifunctional molecules for perovskite solar cells with efficiency over 21%
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Defect and Contact Passivation for Perovskite Solar Cells
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Parameters influencing the deposition of methylammonium lead halide iodide in hole conductor free perovskite-based solar cells
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Self-formed grain boundary healing layer for highly efficient CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells
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Synergistic Crystal and Interface Engineering for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Photovoltaics
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Additive-Modulated Evolution of HC(NH 2 ) 2 PbI 3 Black Polymorph for Mesoscopic Perovskite Solar Cells
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Facet-Dependent Control of PbI 2 Colloids for over 20% Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
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Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated Through CsCl-Enhanced PbI 2 Precursor via Sequential Deposition
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Aligned and Graded Type-II Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells
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High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains
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Enhanced Efficiency of Hot-Cast Large-Area Planar Perovskite Solar Cells/Modules Having Controlled Chloride Incorporation
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Planar‐Structure Perovskite Solar Cells with Efficiency beyond 21%
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Two-Dimensional Ruddlesden–Popper Perovskite with Nanorod-like Morphology for Solar Cells with Efficiency Exceeding 15%
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Effect of non-stoichiometric solution chemistry on improving the performance of wide-bandgap perovskite solar cells
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An 80.11% FF record achieved for perovskite solar cells by using the NH 4 Cl additive
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Synergy of ammonium chloride and moisture on perovskite crystallization for efficient printable mesoscopic solar cells
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Highly (100)-oriented CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 (Cl) perovskite solar cells prepared with NH 4 Cl using an air blow method
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Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells with 14.1% Power Conversion Efficiency and 0.68% External Radiative Efficiency
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Additive engineering for high-performance room-temperature-processed perovskite absorbers with micron-size grains and microsecond-range carrier lifetimes
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Guanidinium thiocyanate selective Ostwald ripening induced large grain for high performance perovskite solar cells
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Enhance the performance and stability of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with guanidinium thiocyanate additive
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Halogen-free guanidinium-based perovskite solar cell with enhanced stability
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Orientation Regulation of Phenylethylammonium Cation Based 2D Perovskite Solar Cell with Efficiency Higher Than 11%
journal, January 2018

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Thiocyanate assisted performance enhancement of formamidinium based planar perovskite solar cells through a single one-step solution process
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Effects of methylammonium acetate on the perovskite film quality for the perovskite solar cell
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Management of perovskite intermediates for highly efficient inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells
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Methylammonium Chloride Induces Intermediate Phase Stabilization for Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
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Defect passivation in hybrid perovskite solar cells using quaternary ammonium halide anions and cations
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Improved performance and stability of perovskite solar cells by crystal crosslinking with alkylphosphonic acid ω-ammonium chlorides
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Monoammonium Porphyrin for Blade-Coating Stable Large-Area Perovskite Solar Cells with >18% Efficiency
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3D/2D multidimensional perovskites: Balance of high performance and stability for perovskite solar cells
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Stable and Reproducible 2D/3D Formamidinium–Lead–Iodide Perovskite Solar Cells
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Bication lead iodide 2D perovskite component to stabilize inorganic α-CsPbI 3 perovskite phase for high-efficiency solar cells
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Tailored dimensionality to regulate the phase stability of inorganic cesium lead iodide perovskites
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Reduced-Dimensional α-CsPbX3 Perovskites for Efficient and Stable Photovoltaics
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Perovskite seeding growth of formamidinium-lead-iodide-based perovskites for efficient and stable solar cells
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Cation exchange for thin film lead iodide perovskite interconversion
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Stabilizing Perovskite Structures by Tuning Tolerance Factor: Formation of Formamidinium and Cesium Lead Iodide Solid-State Alloys
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2D perovskite stabilized phase-pure formamidinium perovskite solar cells
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Passivation of Grain Boundaries by Phenethylammonium in Formamidinium-Methylammonium Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
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High performance ambient-air-stable FAPbI 3 perovskite solar cells with molecule-passivated Ruddlesden–Popper/3D heterostructured film
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Bimolecular Additives Improve Wide-Band-Gap Perovskites for Efficient Tandem Solar Cells with CIGS
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High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Environmental Stability Based on Amphiphile-Modified CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3
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Congeneric Incorporation of CsPbBr 3 Nanocrystals in a Hybrid Perovskite Heterojunction for Photovoltaic Efficiency Enhancement
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Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids. Solvents for Synthesis and Catalysis
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Thermally Induced Structural Evolution and Performance of Mesoporous Block Copolymer-Directed Alumina Perovskite Solar Cells
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Direct Crystallization Route to Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite from an Ionic Liquid
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Viscosity effect of ionic liquid-assisted controlled growth of CH3NH3PbI3 nanoparticle-based planar perovskite solar cells
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Ionic Liquid Control Crystal Growth to Enhance Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Efficiency
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Extending the Lifetime of Perovskite Solar Cells using a Perfluorinated Dopant
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Towards Extending Solar Cell Lifetimes: Addition of a Fluorous Cation to Triple Cation-Based Perovskite Films
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Water‐Soluble Triazolium Ionic‐Liquid‐Induced Surface Self‐Assembly to Enhance the Stability and Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells
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A Strategy to Produce High Efficiency, High Stability Perovskite Solar Cells Using Functionalized Ionic Liquid-Dopants
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Planar perovskite solar cells with long-term stability using ionic liquid additives
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Ionic Liquid-Assisted Improvements in the Thermal Stability of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Perovskite Photovoltaics
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Retarding Thermal Degradation in Hybrid Perovskites by Ionic Liquid Additives
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Physical Chemical Principles of Photovoltaic Conversion with Nanoparticulate, Mesoporous Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
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Interfaces in Perovskite Solar Cells
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Origin of the Hysteresis in IV Curves for Planar Structure Perovskite Solar Cells Rationalized with a Surface Boundary-induced Capacitance Model
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On the Current–Voltage Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells: Dependence on Perovskite Composition and Methods to Remove Hysteresis
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Simple Way to Engineer Metal–Semiconductor Interface for Enhanced Performance of Perovskite Organic Lead Iodide Solar Cells
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Stable Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells without Hole-Conductor Layer Achieved via Cell Structure Design and Contact Engineering
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Influence of Electrode Interfaces on the Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells: Reduced Degradation Using MoO x /Al for Hole Collection
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Perovskite solar cells with CuSCN hole extraction layers yield stabilized efficiencies greater than 20%
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Laminated Carbon Nanotube Networks for Metal Electrode-Free Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
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Origin of JV Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells
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Overcoming ultraviolet light instability of sensitized TiO2 with meso-superstructured organometal tri-halide perovskite solar cells
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High-Performance Perovskite-Polymer Hybrid Solar Cells via Electronic Coupling with Fullerene Monolayers
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Heterojunction Modification for Highly Efficient Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells
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Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells via Modification of Surface Characteristics Using a Fullerene Interlayer
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17.6% stabilized efficiency in low-temperature processed planar perovskite solar cells
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High Performance Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with Fullerene Derivatives as the Electron Transport Layer
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Highly Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells Via Interfacial Modification with Fullerene Derivatives
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Facilitating Electron Transportation in Perovskite Solar Cells via Water-Soluble Fullerenol Interlayers
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It Takes Two to Tango—Double-Layer Selective Contacts in Perovskite Solar Cells for Improved Device Performance and Reduced Hysteresis
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Multifunctional Fullerene Derivative for Interface Engineering in Perovskite Solar Cells
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Interface passivation using ultrathin polymer–fullerene films for high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with negligible hysteresis
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Surface optimization to eliminate hysteresis for record efficiency planar perovskite solar cells
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Solution-Processable Ionic Liquid as an Independent or Modifying Electron Transport Layer for High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells
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Origin of the Thermal Instability in CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 Thin Films Deposited on ZnO
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Low-temperature-processed efficient semi-transparent planar perovskite solar cells for bifacial and tandem applications
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Ionic liquid modified SnO 2 nanocrystals as a robust electron transporting layer for efficient planar perovskite solar cells
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Cooperative tin oxide fullerene electron selective layers for high-performance planar perovskite solar cells
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Fullerene derivative anchored SnO 2 for high-performance perovskite solar cells
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High efficiency planar-type perovskite solar cells with negligible hysteresis using EDTA-complexed SnO2
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Recent Progress of Perovskite Solar Cells
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Doping strategies for small molecule organic hole-transport materials: impacts on perovskite solar cell performance and stability
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A Generic Route of Hydrophobic Doping in Hole Transporting Material to Increase Longevity of Perovskite Solar Cells
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AgTFSI as p-Type Dopant for Efficient and Stable Solid-State Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells
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Novel p-dopant toward highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
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Copper iodide as a potential low-cost dopant for spiro-MeOTAD in perovskite solar cells
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High performance and stable perovskite solar cells using vanadic oxide as a dopant for spiro-OMeTAD
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Stability of perovskite solar cells
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V2O5 -PEDOT: PSS bilayer as hole transport layer for highly efficient and stable perovskite solar cells
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Highly efficient and stable inverted perovskite solar cell employing PEDOT:GO composite layer as a hole transport layer
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A Mechanically Robust Conducting Polymer Network Electrode for Efficient Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells
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Surface passivation of perovskite layers using heterocyclic halides: Improved photovoltaic properties and intrinsic stability
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Enhancing Perovskite Solar Cell Performance by Interface Engineering Using CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 0.9 I 2.1 Quantum Dots
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Efficiency and stability enhancement of perovskite solar cells by introducing CsPbI3 quantum dots as an interface engineering layer
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Quantum Dots Supply Bulk- and Surface-Passivation Agents for Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells
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Fusing Nanowires into Thin Films: Fabrication of Graded‐Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Performance
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Enhancing moisture tolerance in efficient hybrid 3D/2D perovskite photovoltaics
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In Situ Growth of 2D Perovskite Capping Layer for Stable and Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells
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Selective growth of layered perovskites for stable and efficient photovoltaics
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Hybrid Perovskite/Perovskite Heterojunction Solar Cells
journal, May 2016


Simultaneous Improvement of Photovoltaic Performance and Stability by In Situ Formation of 2D Perovskite at (FAPbI 3 ) 0.88 (CsPbBr 3 ) 0.12 /CuSCN Interface
journal, January 2018

  • Chen, Jiangzhao; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Nam-Gyu
  • Advanced Energy Materials, Vol. 8, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1002/aenm.201702714

Ultrahydrophobic 3D/2D fluoroarene bilayer-based water-resistant perovskite solar cells with efficiencies exceeding 22%
journal, June 2019


An interface stabilized perovskite solar cell with high stabilized efficiency and low voltage loss
journal, January 2019

  • Yoo, Jason J.; Wieghold, Sarah; Sponseller, Melany C.
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 12, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1039/C9EE00751B

Improving the stability and performance of perovskite solar cells via off-the-shelf post-device ligand treatment
journal, January 2018

  • Zhang, Hong; Ren, Xingang; Chen, Xiwen
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8EE00580J

Enhanced Charge Transport by Incorporating Formamidinium and Cesium Cations into Two-Dimensional Perovskite Solar Cells
journal, July 2019

  • Gao, Liguo; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Xihan
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 58, Issue 34
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201905690

Enhanced Charge Transport in 2D Perovskites via Fluorination of Organic Cation
journal, March 2019

  • Zhang, Fei; Kim, Dong Hoe; Lu, Haipeng
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 141, Issue 14
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b00972

Atomic-level passivation mechanism of ammonium salts enabling highly efficient perovskite solar cells
journal, July 2019

  • Alharbi, Essa A.; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Kubicki, Dominik J.
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 10, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-10985-5

Functionalization of perovskite thin films with moisture-tolerant molecules
journal, January 2016


Structural features and their functions in surfactant-armoured methylammonium lead iodide perovskites for highly efficient and stable solar cells
journal, January 2018

  • Jung, Minsu; Shin, Tae Joo; Seo, Jangwon
  • Energy & Environmental Science, Vol. 11, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1039/C8EE00995C

Enhanced mobility CsPbI 3 quantum dot arrays for record-efficiency, high-voltage photovoltaic cells
journal, October 2017

  • Sanehira, Erin M.; Marshall, Ashley R.; Christians, Jeffrey A.
  • Science Advances, Vol. 3, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4204

Phase-Stable CsPbI 3 Nanocrystals: The Reaction Temperature Matters
journal, June 2018

  • Dutta, Anirban; Dutta, Sumit K.; Das Adhikari, Samrat
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition, Vol. 57, Issue 29
  • DOI: 10.1002/anie.201803701

Thermodynamically stabilized β-CsPbI 3 –based perovskite solar cells with efficiencies >18%
journal, August 2019


Efficient α-CsPbI3 Photovoltaics with Surface Terminated Organic Cations
journal, October 2018


Bifunctional Stabilization of All-Inorganic α-CsPbI 3 Perovskite for 17% Efficiency Photovoltaics
journal, September 2018

  • Wang, Yong; Zhang, Taiyang; Kan, Miao
  • Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 140, Issue 39
  • DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b07927

Enhanced photovoltage for inverted planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells
journal, June 2018