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Title: Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities

Abstract

The global and U.S. domestic effort to develop a clean energy economy and curb environmental pollution incentivizes the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel, owing to its zero tailpipe pollutant emissions and high fuel efficiency in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). However, the hydrogen production process is not emissions free. Conventional hydrogen production via steam methane reforming (SMR) is energy intensive, coproduces carbon dioxide, and emits air pollutants. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the environmental impacts of SMR hydrogen production alongside the use-phase of FCEVs. This study fills the information gap, analyzing the greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CAP) emissions associated with hydrogen production in U.S. SMR facilities by compiling and matching the facility-reported GHG and CAP emissions data with facilities’ hydrogen production data. The actual amounts of hydrogen produced at U.S. SMR facilities are often confidential. Thus, we have developed four approaches to estimate the hydrogen production amounts. The resultant GHG and CAP emissions per MJ of hydrogen produced in individual facilities were aggregated to develop emission values for both a national median and a California state median. Lastly, this study also investigates the breakdown of facility emissions into combustion emissions and noncombustion emissions.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
  2. Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG), Lexington, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1546962
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Environmental Science and Technology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 53; Journal Issue: 12; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-936X
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SMR; hydrogen production; CAP emission; GHG emissions; U.S.; California

Citation Formats

Sun, Pingping, Young, Ben, Elgowainy, Amgad, Lu, Zifeng, Wang, Michael, Morelli, Ben, and Hawkins, Troy Robert. Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b06197.
Sun, Pingping, Young, Ben, Elgowainy, Amgad, Lu, Zifeng, Wang, Michael, Morelli, Ben, & Hawkins, Troy Robert. Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b06197.
Sun, Pingping, Young, Ben, Elgowainy, Amgad, Lu, Zifeng, Wang, Michael, Morelli, Ben, and Hawkins, Troy Robert. Tue . "Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b06197.
@article{osti_1546962,
title = {Criteria Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydrogen Production in U.S. Steam Methane Reforming Facilities},
author = {Sun, Pingping and Young, Ben and Elgowainy, Amgad and Lu, Zifeng and Wang, Michael and Morelli, Ben and Hawkins, Troy Robert},
abstractNote = {The global and U.S. domestic effort to develop a clean energy economy and curb environmental pollution incentivizes the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel, owing to its zero tailpipe pollutant emissions and high fuel efficiency in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs). However, the hydrogen production process is not emissions free. Conventional hydrogen production via steam methane reforming (SMR) is energy intensive, coproduces carbon dioxide, and emits air pollutants. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the environmental impacts of SMR hydrogen production alongside the use-phase of FCEVs. This study fills the information gap, analyzing the greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CAP) emissions associated with hydrogen production in U.S. SMR facilities by compiling and matching the facility-reported GHG and CAP emissions data with facilities’ hydrogen production data. The actual amounts of hydrogen produced at U.S. SMR facilities are often confidential. Thus, we have developed four approaches to estimate the hydrogen production amounts. The resultant GHG and CAP emissions per MJ of hydrogen produced in individual facilities were aggregated to develop emission values for both a national median and a California state median. Lastly, this study also investigates the breakdown of facility emissions into combustion emissions and noncombustion emissions.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.est.8b06197},
journal = {Environmental Science and Technology},
number = 12,
volume = 53,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
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This content will become publicly available on April 30, 2020
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