skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials

Abstract

We present results for pseudo-critical temperatures of QCD chiral crossovers at zero and non-zero values of baryon (B), strangeness (S), electric charge (Q), and isospin (I) chemical potentials µX=B,Q,S,I. The results were obtained using lattice QCD calculations carried out with two degenerate up and down dynamical quarks and a dynamical strange quark, with quark masses corresponding to physical values of pion and kaon masses in the continuum limit. By parameterizing pseudo-critical temperatures as TcX) = Tc(0) [1 – κX2 (µX/Tc(0))2 – κ4X (µX/Tc(0))4], we determined κX2 and κX4 from Taylor expansions of chiral observables in µX . We obtained a precise result for Tc(0) = (156.5 ± 1.5) MeV. For analogous thermal conditions at the chemical freeze-out of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, i.e., µS (T, µB) and µQ(T, µB) fixed from strangeness-neutrality and isospin-imbalance, we found κ2B =0.012(4) and κ4B =0.000(4). For µB ≲ 300 MeV, the chemical freeze-out takes place in the vicinity of the QCD phase boundary, which coincides with the lines of constant energy density of 0.42(6) GeV/fm3 and constant entropy density of 3.7(5) fm–3.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Nuclear Physics (NP)
OSTI Identifier:
1545894
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1557713
Report Number(s):
BNL-211871-2019-JAAM
Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693; S0370269319303223; PII: S0370269319303223
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0012704
Resource Type:
Published Article
Journal Name:
Physics Letters B
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Physics Letters B Journal Volume: 795 Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0370-2693
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS

Citation Formats

Bazavov, A., Ding, H. -T., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Karthik, N., Laermann, E., Lahiri, Anirban, Larsen, R., Li, S. -T., Mukherjee, Swagato, Ohno, H., Petreczky, P., Sandmeyer, H., Schmidt, C., Sharma, S., and Steinbrecher, P.. Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials. Netherlands: N. p., 2019. Web. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2019.05.013.
Bazavov, A., Ding, H. -T., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Karthik, N., Laermann, E., Lahiri, Anirban, Larsen, R., Li, S. -T., Mukherjee, Swagato, Ohno, H., Petreczky, P., Sandmeyer, H., Schmidt, C., Sharma, S., & Steinbrecher, P.. Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials. Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2019.05.013
Bazavov, A., Ding, H. -T., Hegde, P., Kaczmarek, O., Karsch, F., Karthik, N., Laermann, E., Lahiri, Anirban, Larsen, R., Li, S. -T., Mukherjee, Swagato, Ohno, H., Petreczky, P., Sandmeyer, H., Schmidt, C., Sharma, S., and Steinbrecher, P.. Thu . "Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials". Netherlands. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2019.05.013.
@article{osti_1545894,
title = {Chiral crossover in QCD at zero and non-zero chemical potentials},
author = {Bazavov, A. and Ding, H. -T. and Hegde, P. and Kaczmarek, O. and Karsch, F. and Karthik, N. and Laermann, E. and Lahiri, Anirban and Larsen, R. and Li, S. -T. and Mukherjee, Swagato and Ohno, H. and Petreczky, P. and Sandmeyer, H. and Schmidt, C. and Sharma, S. and Steinbrecher, P.},
abstractNote = {We present results for pseudo-critical temperatures of QCD chiral crossovers at zero and non-zero values of baryon (B), strangeness (S), electric charge (Q), and isospin (I) chemical potentials µX=B,Q,S,I. The results were obtained using lattice QCD calculations carried out with two degenerate up and down dynamical quarks and a dynamical strange quark, with quark masses corresponding to physical values of pion and kaon masses in the continuum limit. By parameterizing pseudo-critical temperatures as Tc(µX) = Tc(0) [1 – κX2 (µX/Tc(0))2 – κ4X (µX/Tc(0))4], we determined κX2 and κX4 from Taylor expansions of chiral observables in µX . We obtained a precise result for Tc(0) = (156.5 ± 1.5) MeV. For analogous thermal conditions at the chemical freeze-out of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, i.e., µS (T, µB) and µQ(T, µB) fixed from strangeness-neutrality and isospin-imbalance, we found κ2B =0.012(4) and κ4B =0.000(4). For µB ≲ 300 MeV, the chemical freeze-out takes place in the vicinity of the QCD phase boundary, which coincides with the lines of constant energy density of 0.42(6) GeV/fm3 and constant entropy density of 3.7(5) fm–3.},
doi = {10.1016/j.physletb.2019.05.013},
journal = {Physics Letters B},
number = C,
volume = 795,
place = {Netherlands},
year = {2019},
month = {8}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2019.05.013

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 45 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Freeze-Out Conditions in Heavy Ion Collisions from QCD Thermodynamics
journal, November 2012


Finite size dependence of scaling functions of the three-dimensional O ( 4 ) model in an external field
journal, July 2014


Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program
journal, October 2017


Phase boundary for the chiral transition in ( 2 + 1 )-flavor QCD at small values of the chemical potential
journal, January 2011


Chemical potential on the lattice
journal, June 1983


QCD thermal phase transition in the presence of a small chemical potential
journal, October 2002


Chiral and deconfinement aspects of the QCD transition
journal, March 2012


Skewness and kurtosis of net baryon-number distributions at small values of the baryon chemical potential
journal, October 2017


Equation of state for two flavor QCD at nonzero chemical potential
journal, July 2003


Critical line of 2 + 1 flavor QCD
journal, April 2014


Faster method of computation of lattice quark number susceptibilities
journal, March 2012


Chiral phase transition of (2+1)-flavor QCD
journal, February 2019


Curvature of the chiral pseudocritical line in QCD
journal, December 2014


A new look at the statistical model identification
journal, December 1974


Curvature of the chiral pseudocritical line in QCD: Continuum extrapolated results
journal, September 2015


QCD equation of state to O ( μ B 6 ) from lattice QCD
journal, March 2017


Cosmic QCD Epoch at Nonvanishing Lepton Asymmetry
journal, November 2018


Critical line of 2 + 1 flavor QCD: Toward the continuum limit
journal, January 2016


Curvature of the freeze-out line in heavy ion collisions
journal, January 2016


Curvature of the pseudocritical line in QCD: Taylor expansion matches analytic continuation
journal, September 2018


QCD phase diagram for nonzero isospin-asymmetry
journal, March 2018


Heavy Ion Collisions: The Big Picture and the Big Questions
journal, October 2018


The QCD phase diagram from analytic continuation
journal, December 2015


The phase diagram of dense QCD
journal, December 2010


Pressure and nonlinear susceptibilities in QCD at finite chemical potentials
journal, August 2003


Scaling functions of the free energy density and its derivatives for the 3 d O ( 4 ) model
journal, May 2012


Thermodynamics of strong-interaction matter from lattice QCD
journal, October 2015

  • Ding, Heng-Tong; Karsch, Frithjof; Mukherjee, Swagato
  • International Journal of Modern Physics E, Vol. 24, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0218301315300076

Thermodynamics of two flavor QCD to sixth order in quark chemical potential
journal, March 2005


Magnetic equation of state in ( 2 + 1 )-flavor QCD
journal, November 2009


Highly improved staggered quarks on the lattice with applications to charm physics
journal, March 2007


Unifying the derivations for the Akaike and corrected Akaike information criteria
journal, April 1997


Divergences in the quark number susceptibility: The origin and a cure
journal, October 2015


Thermal QCD transition with two flavors of twisted mass fermions
journal, April 2013


Decoding the phase structure of QCD via particle production at high energy
journal, September 2018


QCD Phase Transition with Chiral Quarks and Physical Quark Masses
journal, August 2014


The order of the quantum chromodynamics transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics
journal, October 2006


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Bayesian estimation of the specific shear and bulk viscosity of quark–gluon plasma
    journal, August 2019


    Canonical statistical model analysis of p p , p -Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions at energies available at the CERN Large Hadron Collider
    journal, November 2019


    Temperature and fluid velocity on the freeze-out surface from π , K , and p spectra in p p , p -Pb, and Pb-Pb collisions
    journal, January 2020


    Dependence of the static quark free energy on μ B and the crossover temperature of N f = 2 + 1 QCD
    journal, September 2019


    Baryon number fluctuations in the QCD phase diagram from Dyson-Schwinger equations
    journal, October 2019


    Hadron resonance gas with repulsive mean field interaction: Thermodynamics and transport properties
    journal, October 2019


    Roberge-Weiss transitions at different center symmetry breaking patterns in a Z 3 -QCD model
    journal, October 2019


    Thermal broadening of bottomonia: Lattice nonrelativistic QCD with extended operators
    journal, October 2019


    Mesonic dynamics and the QCD phase transition
    journal, November 2019


    Strangeness neutrality and baryon-strangeness correlations
    journal, December 2019


    Finite-density QCD transition in a magnetic background field
    journal, December 2019


    QCD phase structure at finite temperature and density
    journal, March 2020


    Chiral Phase Transition Temperature in ( 2 + 1 )-Flavor QCD
    journal, August 2019


    Hydrodynamic Attractors, Initial State Energy, and Particle Production in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
    journal, December 2019


    Quarks and light (pseudo-)scalar mesons at finite chemical potential
    journal, September 2019

    • Gunkel, Pascal J.; Fischer, Christian S.; Isserstedt, Philipp
    • The European Physical Journal A, Vol. 55, Issue 9
    • DOI: 10.1140/epja/i2019-12868-1

    Hadron resonance gas model and high multiplicities in p–p, p–Pb and Pb–Pb collisions at the LHC
    journal, September 2019

    • Cleymans, Jean; Hippolyte, Boris; Paradza, Masimba W.
    • International Journal of Modern Physics E, Vol. 28, Issue 09
    • DOI: 10.1142/s0218301319400020

    Impact of the Nuclear Equation of State on the Stability of Hybrid Neutron Stars
    journal, August 2019