skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 1—Validation and Two-Phase Permeability in a Utica Shale Sample

Abstract

Estimate of permeability plays a crucial role in flow-based studies of fractured tight-rocks. It is well known that most of the flow through tight-rocks (e.g., shales) is controlled by permeable features (e.g., fractures, laminations, etc.), and there is negligible flow through the matrix. However, current approaches in the literature to model permeability of tight-rocks do not account for such features present within the rock ranging from micro-scale to field-scale. Current permeability modeling approach assumes a single continuum without considering the presence of permeable features within the matrix (e.g., micro-fractures) or outside the matrix (e.g., natural fractures). Although the laboratory-measured permeability implicitly captures discrete features present in that sample (e.g., fractures, laminations, micro-fractures), most of the permeability models proposed for shale do not account for these features. Fracture permeability in the literature is typically modeled using an ideal slit assumption; however, this highly overestimates its permeability because fractures in real medium are non-ideal in terms of their porosity and tortuosity, which affect their permeability. Additionally, the transition zone between fracture and matrix also affects the permeability of fracture. Here in this study, part of a two-part series, a new method to predict permeability of fractured shale by discretizing the medium intomore » matrix (inorganic and organic) and fractures is presented. New analytical expressions of permeability are derived to account for non-ideal nature of porous medium and two-phase flow in fractures. Rock feature in each cell of the grid is identified as one of the three elements (organic matter, inorganic matter, or fracture), and permeability of that cell is estimated using a suitable analytical expression. This method allows estimating permeability at any scale of interest and more robustly than by a pure analytical approach. The proposed method is validated against local and global-scale measurements on three fractured samples from laboratory. Finally, the method is used to predict two-phase flow permeability of supercritical CO2 displacing water within a fracture in a Utica shale sample. The proposed two-phase flow permeability equations can be used as a quick analytical tool to predict relative permeability estimates of two-phase flow in fractured shale samples. In Part 2, the proposed method is used to estimate field-scale permeability through an optimization process that uses field-scale production and other readily available information.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
  2. China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). Hubei Subsurface Multi-Scale Imaging Key Lab., Inst. of Geophysics and Geomatics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, Morgantown, WV, and Albany, OR (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE); National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)
OSTI Identifier:
1532655
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Transport in Porous Media
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 126; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0169-3913
Publisher:
Springer
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Fractures; Tight-rock; Relative permeability; Two phase Utica

Citation Formats

Singh, Harpreet, and Cai, Jianchao. A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 1—Validation and Two-Phase Permeability in a Utica Shale Sample. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/s11242-018-1073-7.
Singh, Harpreet, & Cai, Jianchao. A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 1—Validation and Two-Phase Permeability in a Utica Shale Sample. United States. doi:10.1007/s11242-018-1073-7.
Singh, Harpreet, and Cai, Jianchao. Tue . "A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 1—Validation and Two-Phase Permeability in a Utica Shale Sample". United States. doi:10.1007/s11242-018-1073-7. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1532655.
@article{osti_1532655,
title = {A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 1—Validation and Two-Phase Permeability in a Utica Shale Sample},
author = {Singh, Harpreet and Cai, Jianchao},
abstractNote = {Estimate of permeability plays a crucial role in flow-based studies of fractured tight-rocks. It is well known that most of the flow through tight-rocks (e.g., shales) is controlled by permeable features (e.g., fractures, laminations, etc.), and there is negligible flow through the matrix. However, current approaches in the literature to model permeability of tight-rocks do not account for such features present within the rock ranging from micro-scale to field-scale. Current permeability modeling approach assumes a single continuum without considering the presence of permeable features within the matrix (e.g., micro-fractures) or outside the matrix (e.g., natural fractures). Although the laboratory-measured permeability implicitly captures discrete features present in that sample (e.g., fractures, laminations, micro-fractures), most of the permeability models proposed for shale do not account for these features. Fracture permeability in the literature is typically modeled using an ideal slit assumption; however, this highly overestimates its permeability because fractures in real medium are non-ideal in terms of their porosity and tortuosity, which affect their permeability. Additionally, the transition zone between fracture and matrix also affects the permeability of fracture. Here in this study, part of a two-part series, a new method to predict permeability of fractured shale by discretizing the medium into matrix (inorganic and organic) and fractures is presented. New analytical expressions of permeability are derived to account for non-ideal nature of porous medium and two-phase flow in fractures. Rock feature in each cell of the grid is identified as one of the three elements (organic matter, inorganic matter, or fracture), and permeability of that cell is estimated using a suitable analytical expression. This method allows estimating permeability at any scale of interest and more robustly than by a pure analytical approach. The proposed method is validated against local and global-scale measurements on three fractured samples from laboratory. Finally, the method is used to predict two-phase flow permeability of supercritical CO2 displacing water within a fracture in a Utica shale sample. The proposed two-phase flow permeability equations can be used as a quick analytical tool to predict relative permeability estimates of two-phase flow in fractured shale samples. In Part 2, the proposed method is used to estimate field-scale permeability through an optimization process that uses field-scale production and other readily available information.},
doi = {10.1007/s11242-018-1073-7},
journal = {Transport in Porous Media},
number = 3,
volume = 126,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 14 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Prediction of permeability for porous media reconstructed using multiple-point statistics
journal, December 2004


A Unified Model for Gas Transfer in Nanopores of Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Coupling Pore Diffusion and Surface Diffusion
journal, October 2016


Computations of Absolute Permeability on Micro-CT Images
journal, December 2012

  • Mostaghimi, Peyman; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko
  • Mathematical Geosciences, Vol. 45, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11004-012-9431-4

Three-Dimensional Stochastic Characterization of Shale SEM Images
journal, September 2015

  • Tahmasebi, Pejman; Javadpour, Farzam; Sahimi, Muhammad
  • Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 110, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11242-015-0570-1

Geometrical, fractal and hydraulic properties of fractured reservoirs: A mini-review
journal, June 2017


Laboratory Measurements of Porosity and Permeability of Shale
conference, May 2016


Multiscale relationships between fracture length, aperture, density and permeability
journal, January 2008


Estimation of the Effective Permeability of Heterogeneous Porous Media by Using Percolation Concepts
journal, June 2016


Characterization of Critical Fluid PVT, Rock, and Rock-Fluid Properties - Impact on Reservoir Performance of Liquid Rich Shales
conference, April 2013

  • Honarpour, Mehdi Matt; Nagarajan, Narayana Rao; Orangi, Abdollah
  • SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition
  • DOI: 10.2118/158042-MS

Models of groundwater flow in statistically homogeneous porous formations
journal, February 1979


Uncertainty analysis for the determination of permeability and specific storage from the pulse-transient technique
journal, December 2013

  • Song, Insun; Rathbun, Andrew P.; Saffer, Demian M.
  • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, Vol. 64
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrmms.2013.08.032

New pore space characterization method of shale matrix formation by considering organic and inorganic pores
journal, November 2015


Quantifying the anisotropy and tortuosity of permeable pathways in clay-rich mudstones using models based on X-ray tomography
journal, November 2017


A level-set corrector to an adaptive multiscale permeability prediction
journal, January 2007


Calculating Effective Absolute Permeability in Sandstone/Shale Sequences
journal, September 1989

  • Deutsch, Clayton
  • SPE Formation Evaluation, Vol. 4, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.2118/17264-PA

Why shale permeability changes under variable effective stresses: New insights
journal, February 2018


Fractal Characterization of Dynamic Fracture Network Extension in Porous Media
journal, April 2017


A Theory for Relative Permeability of Unconventional Rocks With Dual-Wettability Pore Network
journal, December 2016

  • Yassin, Mahmood Reza; Dehghanpour, Hassan; Wood, James
  • SPE Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 06
  • DOI: 10.2118/178549-PA

Improved models to predict gas–water relative permeability in fractures and porous media
journal, July 2014


Pore-scale modeling of fluid transport in disordered fibrous materials
journal, July 2002


A new model for calculating permeability of natural fractures in dual-porosity reservoir
journal, September 2017

  • Zhang, Tiantian; Li, Zhiping; Adenutsi, Caspar Daniel
  • Advances in Geo-Energy Research, Vol. 1, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.26804/ager.2017.02.03

Apparent permeability for gas transport in nanopores of organic shale reservoirs including multiple effects
journal, December 2015


A New Analytical Equation to Predict Gas-Water Two-Phase Relative Permeability Curves in Fractures
conference, December 2014

  • Lei, Gang; Dong, Pingchuan; Yang, Shu
  • International Petroleum Technology Conference
  • DOI: 10.2523/IPTC-17966-MS

Permeability of granite under high pressure
journal, March 1968

  • Brace, W. F.; Walsh, J. B.; Frangos, W. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 73, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1029/JB073i006p02225

An Object-Based Shale Permeability Model: Non-Darcy Gas Flow, Sorption, and Surface Diffusion Effects
journal, January 2018

  • Naraghi, Morteza E.; Javadpour, Farzam; Ko, Lucy T.
  • Transport in Porous Media, Vol. 125, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11242-017-0992-z

Wetting criteria for the applicability of membrane distillation
journal, October 1987


Computational Permeability Determination from Pore-Scale Imaging: Sample Size, Mesh and Method Sensitivities
journal, January 2015


Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses
journal, December 2015

  • Gutierrez, Marte; Youn, Dong-Joon
  • Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 7, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.jrmge.2015.07.006

An analytical model for shale gas permeability
journal, July 2015


Novel 3D centimetre-to nano-scale quantification of an organic-rich mudstone: The Carboniferous Bowland Shale, Northern England
journal, April 2016


Correlation between rock fabrics and physical properties of carbonate reservoir rocks
journal, October 1999

  • Dürrast, H.; Siegesmund, S.
  • International Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 88, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1007/s005310050274

Nonempirical Apparent Permeability of Shale
journal, August 2014

  • Singh, Harpreet; Javadpour, Farzam; Ettehadtavakkol, Amin
  • SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 17, Issue 03
  • DOI: 10.2118/170243-PA

Apparent permeability for liquid transport in nanopores of shale reservoirs: Coupling flow enhancement and near wall flow
journal, December 2017


Langmuir slip-Langmuir sorption permeability model of shale
journal, January 2016


A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 2–Predicting Field-Scale Permeability
journal, May 2018


Permeability Description by Characteristic Length, Tortuosity, Constriction and Porosity
journal, April 2014


Percolation-based effective conductivity calculations for bimodal distributions of local conductances
journal, August 2009


Liquid permeability of organic nanopores in shale: Calculation and analysis
journal, August 2017


Apparent permeability of gas shales – Superposition of fluid-dynamic and poro-elastic effects
journal, July 2017


Determining permeability of tight rock samples using inverse modeling
journal, August 1997

  • Finsterle, Stefan; Persoff, Peter
  • Water Resources Research, Vol. 33, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1029/97WR01200

An Analytical Equation to Predict Gas/Water Relative Permeability Curves in Fractures.
conference, April 2013

  • Chima, Andres; Geiger, Sebastian
  • SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference
  • DOI: 10.2118/152252-MS

Bernoulli Trials and Discrete Distributions
journal, July 1990


Study on gas-liquid relative permeability experiments of fractured-porous reservoirs
journal, September 2017


Pressure-Dependent Natural-Fracture Permeability in Shale and Its Effect on Shale-Gas Well Production
journal, May 2013

  • Cho, Younki; Ozkan, Erdal; Apaydin, Osman G.
  • SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering, Vol. 16, Issue 02
  • DOI: 10.2118/159801-PA

Calculation of Oil and Water Relative Permeability for Extra Low Permeability Reservoir
conference, April 2013

  • Liu, Renjing; Liu, Huiqing; Li, Xiusheng
  • International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China
  • DOI: 10.2118/131388-MS

A unified permeability and effective stress relationship for porous and fractured reservoir rocks
journal, February 2016


Apparent gas permeability in an organic-rich shale reservoir
journal, October 2016


Scaling of fracture systems in geological media
journal, August 2001

  • Bonnet, E.; Bour, O.; Odling, N. E.
  • Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. 39, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1029/1999RG000074

History Matching of a Stochastic Model of Field-Scale Fractures: Methodology and Case Study
journal, March 2007

  • Jenni, S.; Hu, L. Y.; Basquet, R.
  • Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Revue de l'IFP, Vol. 62, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.2516/ogst:2007022

Screening improved recovery methods in tight-oil formations by injecting and producing through fractures
journal, January 2018


Generalized Modeling of Spontaneous Imbibition Based on Hagen–Poiseuille Flow in Tortuous Capillaries with Variably Shaped Apertures
journal, April 2014

  • Cai, Jianchao; Perfect, Edmund; Cheng, Chu-Lin
  • Langmuir, Vol. 30, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1021/la5007204

Sorption-Dependent Permeability of Shales
conference, October 2015

  • Lopez, Bruno; Aguilera, Roberto
  • SPE/CSUR Unconventional Resources Conference
  • DOI: 10.2118/175922-MS

Gas flow in ultra-tight shale strata
journal, September 2012

  • Darabi, Hamed; Ettehad, A.; Javadpour, F.
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 710
  • DOI: 10.1017/jfm.2012.424

A stochastic permeability model for the shale-gas systems
journal, February 2015


Geo-material microfluidics at reservoir conditions for subsurface energy resource applications
journal, January 2015

  • Porter, Mark L.; Jiménez-Martínez, Joaquín; Martinez, Ricardo
  • Lab on a Chip, Vol. 15, Issue 20
  • DOI: 10.1039/C5LC00704F

Evolution of shale apparent permeability from stress-controlled to displacement-controlled conditions
journal, August 2016


Review of permeability evolution model for fractured porous media
journal, June 2015


The Sum of Log-Normal Probability Distributions in Scatter Transmission Systems
journal, January 1960


A New Analytical Equation to Predict Gas-Water Two-Phase Relative Permeability Curves in Fractures
conference, December 2014

  • Lei, Gang; Dong, Pingchuan; Yang, Shu
  • International Petroleum Technology Conference
  • DOI: 10.2523/17966-MS

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A Feature-Based Stochastic Permeability of Shale: Part 2–Predicting Field-Scale Permeability
    journal, May 2018


    Critical Review of Fluid Flow Physics at Micro- to Nano‐scale Porous Media Applications in the Energy Sector
    journal, December 2018

    • Singh, Harpreet; Myong, Rho Shin
    • Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 2018
    • DOI: 10.1155/2018/9565240

    Fast prediction of reservoir permeability based on embedded feature selection and LightGBM using direct logging data
    journal, January 2020

    • Zhou, Kaibo; Hu, Yangxiang; Pan, Hao
    • Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 31, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1088/1361-6501/ab4a45

    A novel numerical model of gas transport in multiscale shale gas reservoirs with considering surface diffusion and Langmuir slip conditions
    journal, May 2019

    • Huang, Ting; Cao, Lina; Yuan, Chengdong
    • Energy Science & Engineering, Vol. 7, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1002/ese3.351

    Applicability Analysis of Klinkenberg Slip Theory in the Measurement of Tight Core Permeability
    journal, June 2019

    • Zou, Jirui; Yue, Xiangan; An, Weiqing
    • Energies, Vol. 12, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.3390/en12122351