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Title: Tunneling in graphene–topological insulator hybrid devices

Abstract

Hybrid graphene–topological insulator (TI) devices were fabricated using a mechanical transfer method and studied via electronic transport. Devices consisting of bilayer graphene (BLG) under the TI Bi2Se3 exhibit differential conductance characteristics which appear to be dominated by tunneling, roughly reproducing the Bi2Se3 density of states. Similar results were obtained for BLG on top of Bi2Se3, with tenfold greater conductance consistent with a larger contact area due to better surface conformity. The devices further show evidence of inelastic phonon-assisted tunneling processes involving both Bi2Se3 and graphene phonons. These processes favor phonons which compensate for momentum mismatch between the TI Γ and graphene K, K' points. Finally, the utility of these tunnel junctions is demonstrated on a density-tunable BLG device, where the charge neutrality point is traced along the energy-density trajectory. Lastly, this trajectory is used as a measure of the ground-state density of states.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [2]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem (Israel). Racah Inst. of Physics
  2. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. National Inst. of Material Science, Tsukuba (Japan). Advanced Materials Lab.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1505756
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1234007
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0006418; DMR-0819762; ECS-0335765; PCIG12-GA-2012-333620
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 92; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 1098-0121
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Steinberg, H., Orona, L. A., Fatemi, V., Sanchez-Yamagishi, J. D., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., and Jarillo-Herrero, P. Tunneling in graphene–topological insulator hybrid devices. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1103/physrevb.92.241409.
Steinberg, H., Orona, L. A., Fatemi, V., Sanchez-Yamagishi, J. D., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., & Jarillo-Herrero, P. Tunneling in graphene–topological insulator hybrid devices. United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.92.241409
Steinberg, H., Orona, L. A., Fatemi, V., Sanchez-Yamagishi, J. D., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., and Jarillo-Herrero, P. Mon . "Tunneling in graphene–topological insulator hybrid devices". United States. doi:https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.92.241409. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1505756.
@article{osti_1505756,
title = {Tunneling in graphene–topological insulator hybrid devices},
author = {Steinberg, H. and Orona, L. A. and Fatemi, V. and Sanchez-Yamagishi, J. D. and Watanabe, K. and Taniguchi, T. and Jarillo-Herrero, P.},
abstractNote = {Hybrid graphene–topological insulator (TI) devices were fabricated using a mechanical transfer method and studied via electronic transport. Devices consisting of bilayer graphene (BLG) under the TI Bi2Se3 exhibit differential conductance characteristics which appear to be dominated by tunneling, roughly reproducing the Bi2Se3 density of states. Similar results were obtained for BLG on top of Bi2Se3, with tenfold greater conductance consistent with a larger contact area due to better surface conformity. The devices further show evidence of inelastic phonon-assisted tunneling processes involving both Bi2Se3 and graphene phonons. These processes favor phonons which compensate for momentum mismatch between the TI Γ and graphene K, K' points. Finally, the utility of these tunnel junctions is demonstrated on a density-tunable BLG device, where the charge neutrality point is traced along the energy-density trajectory. Lastly, this trajectory is used as a measure of the ground-state density of states.},
doi = {10.1103/physrevb.92.241409},
journal = {Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics},
number = 24,
volume = 92,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {12}
}

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Cited by: 6 works
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Figures / Tables:

FIG. 1 FIG. 1: (a) Optical image of device 1, “BLG bottom,” consisting of BLG on the bottom and Bi2Se3 on top. The BLG outline is marked in green. (b) Device 1 with contacts. The bar is 2 μm long. (c) dI/dV vs VTI of device 1 (source on the Bi2Se3). Inset:more » Schematic showing the BLG (green) underneath the TI (teal, outline representing the TI surface states). (d) Device 2: “BLG top.” A single BLG flake deposited on top of two Bi2Se3 flakes. (e) Atomic force microscopy phase image of device 2. The arrows mark the two separate junctions. (f) dI/dV vs VTI of the two junctions in device 2. Top junction: blue; bottom: red. Inset: Schematic showing BLG on top of the TI. (g), (h) Annotations illustrating the DOS alignment in tunneling between (g) BLG and (h) monolayer graphene (MLG) and a TI. All dI/dV data are normalized per μm2. (i) dI/dV vs VTI of device 3: “MLG bottom.”« less

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