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Title: Resolving Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells with Rapid Flame-Processed Cobalt-Doped TiO 2

Abstract

To further increase the open–circuit voltage ( V oc) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), many efforts have been devoted to doping the TiO 2 electron transport/selective layers by using metal dopants with higher electronegativity than Ti. However, those dopants can introduce undesired charge traps that hinder charge transport through TiO 2, so the improvement in the V oc is often accompanied by an undesired photocurrent density–voltage ( J–V) hysteresis problem. Herein, it is demonstrated that the use of a rapid flame doping process (40 s) to introduce cobalt dopant into TiO 2 not only solves the J–V hysteresis problem but also increases the V oc and power conversion efficiency of both mesoscopic and planar PSCs. The reasons for the simultaneous improvements are two fold. First, the flame–doped Co–TiO 2 film forms Co–O v (cobalt dopant–oxygen vacancy) pairs and hence reduces the number density of Ti 3+ trap states. Second, Co doping upshifts the band structure of TiO 2, facilitating efficient charge extraction. As a result, for planar PSCs, the flame doping of Co increases the efficiency from 17.1% to 18.0% while reducing the hysteresis from 16.0% to 1.7%. Here, for mesoscopic PSCs, the flame doping of Co increases the efficiencymore » from 18.5% to 20.0% while reducing the hysteresis from 7.0% to 0.1%.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4]
  1. Sungkyunkwan Univ. (SKKU), Suwon (Republic of Korea); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  2. Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)
  3. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1490881
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 2015-22-0067; 2016R1A2A1A05005216; 2018R1D1A1B07050875; 20163010012450; 20173010013340
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 1614-6832
Publisher:
Wiley
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; cobalt‐doped TiO2; electron transport layer; hysteresis; perovskite solar cells; sol‐flame doping

Citation Formats

Kim, Jung Kyu, Chai, Sung Uk, Ji, Yongfei, Levy-Wendt, Ben, Kim, Suk Hyun, Yi, Yeonjin, Heinz, Tony F., Nørskov, Jens K., Park, Jong Hyeok, and Zheng, Xiaolin. Resolving Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells with Rapid Flame-Processed Cobalt-Doped TiO2. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/aenm.201801717.
Kim, Jung Kyu, Chai, Sung Uk, Ji, Yongfei, Levy-Wendt, Ben, Kim, Suk Hyun, Yi, Yeonjin, Heinz, Tony F., Nørskov, Jens K., Park, Jong Hyeok, & Zheng, Xiaolin. Resolving Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells with Rapid Flame-Processed Cobalt-Doped TiO2. United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201801717.
Kim, Jung Kyu, Chai, Sung Uk, Ji, Yongfei, Levy-Wendt, Ben, Kim, Suk Hyun, Yi, Yeonjin, Heinz, Tony F., Nørskov, Jens K., Park, Jong Hyeok, and Zheng, Xiaolin. Wed . "Resolving Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells with Rapid Flame-Processed Cobalt-Doped TiO2". United States. doi:10.1002/aenm.201801717. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1490881.
@article{osti_1490881,
title = {Resolving Hysteresis in Perovskite Solar Cells with Rapid Flame-Processed Cobalt-Doped TiO2},
author = {Kim, Jung Kyu and Chai, Sung Uk and Ji, Yongfei and Levy-Wendt, Ben and Kim, Suk Hyun and Yi, Yeonjin and Heinz, Tony F. and Nørskov, Jens K. and Park, Jong Hyeok and Zheng, Xiaolin},
abstractNote = {To further increase the open–circuit voltage (V oc) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), many efforts have been devoted to doping the TiO2 electron transport/selective layers by using metal dopants with higher electronegativity than Ti. However, those dopants can introduce undesired charge traps that hinder charge transport through TiO2, so the improvement in the V oc is often accompanied by an undesired photocurrent density–voltage (J–V) hysteresis problem. Herein, it is demonstrated that the use of a rapid flame doping process (40 s) to introduce cobalt dopant into TiO2 not only solves the J–V hysteresis problem but also increases the V oc and power conversion efficiency of both mesoscopic and planar PSCs. The reasons for the simultaneous improvements are two fold. First, the flame–doped Co–TiO2 film forms Co–Ov (cobalt dopant–oxygen vacancy) pairs and hence reduces the number density of Ti3+ trap states. Second, Co doping upshifts the band structure of TiO2, facilitating efficient charge extraction. As a result, for planar PSCs, the flame doping of Co increases the efficiency from 17.1% to 18.0% while reducing the hysteresis from 16.0% to 1.7%. Here, for mesoscopic PSCs, the flame doping of Co increases the efficiency from 18.5% to 20.0% while reducing the hysteresis from 7.0% to 0.1%.},
doi = {10.1002/aenm.201801717},
journal = {Advanced Energy Materials},
number = 29,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {8}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: Characterization of the TiO2 ETL. a) Schematic illustration of the PSC fabrication with the Co‐doped TiO2 by rapid sol‐flame doping. b) Co 2p XPS spectrum of Co‐TiO2. c) Ti 2p XPS spectra, d) XPS VB spectra, and e) MS plots of bare TiO2 and Co‐TiO2.

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

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      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.