skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Formation of high concentrations of isolated Zn vacancies and evidence for their acceptor levels in ZnO

Abstract

Here, research is described here that is directed toward obtaining p-type ZnO crystals either by doping or by creating native defects. Theoretically, zinc vacancies are shallow acceptors that should allow for p-type conduction. Bulk ZnO crystals can be grown by chemical vapor transport (CVT), melt solidification, and hydrothermal methods. Here we have explored annealing processes with the goal of creating zinc vacancies in bulk ZnO crystals. Positron annihilation spectra reveal the reproducible formation of high concentrations (>10 20 cm –3) of isolated zinc vacancies ( V Zn) in oxygen-annealed, CVT-grown ZnO crystals in the ~100–150 nm near-surface. Melt- and hydrothermally grown samples, in contrast, show insignificant levels of zinc vacancy creation. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra indicate a V Zn(0/-1) acceptor level at ~ 155–165 meV; red PL (~1.7 eV) emission, related to the V Zn(-1/-2) level, was also observed. Infrared absorption spectroscopy reveals the presence of a zinc vacancy complex with a hole binding energy range of 420–450 meV – and with a continuum suggesting a p-type region. XPS measurements support the deficiency of Zn after oxygen annealing the CVT-grown ZnO single crystal.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4]
  1. Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Republic of Korea)
  2. Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Republic of Korea); Korea Univ. of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Republic of Korea)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Materials Sciences & Engineering Division; USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1489144
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1495832
Grant/Contract Number:  
[FG02-07ER46386]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 729; Journal Issue: C]; Journal ID: ISSN 0925-8388
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Positron annihilation spectroscopy; ZnO; Zn vacancy; Acceptor level; FTIR; PL; XPS; SEM

Citation Formats

Parmar, Narendra S., Choi, Ji -Won, Boatner, Lynn A., McCluskey, Matthew D., and Lynn, Kelvin G. Formation of high concentrations of isolated Zn vacancies and evidence for their acceptor levels in ZnO. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.239.
Parmar, Narendra S., Choi, Ji -Won, Boatner, Lynn A., McCluskey, Matthew D., & Lynn, Kelvin G. Formation of high concentrations of isolated Zn vacancies and evidence for their acceptor levels in ZnO. United States. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.239.
Parmar, Narendra S., Choi, Ji -Won, Boatner, Lynn A., McCluskey, Matthew D., and Lynn, Kelvin G. Fri . "Formation of high concentrations of isolated Zn vacancies and evidence for their acceptor levels in ZnO". United States. doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.239. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1489144.
@article{osti_1489144,
title = {Formation of high concentrations of isolated Zn vacancies and evidence for their acceptor levels in ZnO},
author = {Parmar, Narendra S. and Choi, Ji -Won and Boatner, Lynn A. and McCluskey, Matthew D. and Lynn, Kelvin G.},
abstractNote = {Here, research is described here that is directed toward obtaining p-type ZnO crystals either by doping or by creating native defects. Theoretically, zinc vacancies are shallow acceptors that should allow for p-type conduction. Bulk ZnO crystals can be grown by chemical vapor transport (CVT), melt solidification, and hydrothermal methods. Here we have explored annealing processes with the goal of creating zinc vacancies in bulk ZnO crystals. Positron annihilation spectra reveal the reproducible formation of high concentrations (>1020 cm–3) of isolated zinc vacancies (VZn) in oxygen-annealed, CVT-grown ZnO crystals in the ~100–150 nm near-surface. Melt- and hydrothermally grown samples, in contrast, show insignificant levels of zinc vacancy creation. Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra indicate a VZn(0/-1) acceptor level at ~ 155–165 meV; red PL (~1.7 eV) emission, related to the VZn(-1/-2) level, was also observed. Infrared absorption spectroscopy reveals the presence of a zinc vacancy complex with a hole binding energy range of 420–450 meV – and with a continuum suggesting a p-type region. XPS measurements support the deficiency of Zn after oxygen annealing the CVT-grown ZnO single crystal.},
doi = {10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.239},
journal = {Journal of Alloys and Compounds},
number = [C],
volume = [729],
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 7 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Figures / Tables:

TABLE I TABLE I: Nomenclature for different states of CVT ZnO crystals used in the manuscrip

Save / Share: