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Title: Development of a gall-resistant stainless-steel hardfacing alloy

Abstract

Here, this work details the development of a new cobalt-free stainless steel powder metallurgy hardfacing alloy designed to replace Stellite 6, a cobalt-based hardfacing alloy used in nuclear valve applications. The fundamental strategy centers on alloying stainless steels with up to 0.5 wt% nitrogen, which is shown to increase both the volume fraction of hard phase precipitates and the strain-hardening rate of the matrix. The resultant alloy, Nitromaxx, exhibits galling performance that is comparable to Stellite 6, up to 350 °C. This performance is attributed to the suppression of strain localization events associated with galling. In particular, transmission electron microscopy and diffraction measurements from tensile tests show that the nitrogen addition decreases the calculated matrix stacking fault energy and enhances both deformation-induced martensite transformation at room temperature and deformation twinning at elevated temperature. These strain-hardening mechanisms, coupled with the increase in precipitate volume fraction, effectively suppress localization and enhance galling resistance up to 350 °C. Lastly, the enhanced galling resistance cannot be rationalized in terms of tensile stress-strain response alone.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [2];  [2]
  1. California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)
  2. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. Materials Science and Engineering
  3. The Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States)
  4. Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering
  5. Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory-LNNano, Campinas, SP (Brazil)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1471842
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Materials & Design
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 143; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0264-1275
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Wear; Alloy design; Stainless steel; Phase transformation; Twinning; Stacking fault energy

Citation Formats

Smith, Ryan, Doran, Marc, Gandy, David, Babu, Suresh, Wu, Leonardo, Ramirez, Antonio J., and Anderson, Peter M. Development of a gall-resistant stainless-steel hardfacing alloy. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.020.
Smith, Ryan, Doran, Marc, Gandy, David, Babu, Suresh, Wu, Leonardo, Ramirez, Antonio J., & Anderson, Peter M. Development of a gall-resistant stainless-steel hardfacing alloy. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.020
Smith, Ryan, Doran, Marc, Gandy, David, Babu, Suresh, Wu, Leonardo, Ramirez, Antonio J., and Anderson, Peter M. Fri . "Development of a gall-resistant stainless-steel hardfacing alloy". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.020. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1471842.
@article{osti_1471842,
title = {Development of a gall-resistant stainless-steel hardfacing alloy},
author = {Smith, Ryan and Doran, Marc and Gandy, David and Babu, Suresh and Wu, Leonardo and Ramirez, Antonio J. and Anderson, Peter M.},
abstractNote = {Here, this work details the development of a new cobalt-free stainless steel powder metallurgy hardfacing alloy designed to replace Stellite 6, a cobalt-based hardfacing alloy used in nuclear valve applications. The fundamental strategy centers on alloying stainless steels with up to 0.5 wt% nitrogen, which is shown to increase both the volume fraction of hard phase precipitates and the strain-hardening rate of the matrix. The resultant alloy, Nitromaxx, exhibits galling performance that is comparable to Stellite 6, up to 350 °C. This performance is attributed to the suppression of strain localization events associated with galling. In particular, transmission electron microscopy and diffraction measurements from tensile tests show that the nitrogen addition decreases the calculated matrix stacking fault energy and enhances both deformation-induced martensite transformation at room temperature and deformation twinning at elevated temperature. These strain-hardening mechanisms, coupled with the increase in precipitate volume fraction, effectively suppress localization and enhance galling resistance up to 350 °C. Lastly, the enhanced galling resistance cannot be rationalized in terms of tensile stress-strain response alone.},
doi = {10.1016/j.matdes.2018.01.020},
journal = {Materials & Design},
number = C,
volume = 143,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Figure 1 Figure 1: (left) Cross section view through a galling scar in a stainless steel with precipitates showing severe localization associated with scar and wear debris formation [3]; (right) Schematic depicting the development of a shear band through a highly deformed, nanocrystalline region with a thickness that scales with the averagemore » asperity size (inversely proportional to hardness, in the Archard wear regime).« less

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