skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle

Abstract

Flow of magnetized plasma past an obstacle creates a traditional wake, but also a forewake region arising from shadowing of electrons. The electron forewakes resulting from supersonic flows past insulating and floating-potential obstacles are explored with 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell simula-tions, using a physical ion to electron mass ratio. Drift-energization is discovered to give rise to modifications to the electron velocity-distribution, including a slope-reversal, providing a novel drive of forewake instability. The slope-reversal is present at certain locations in all the simula-tions, and appears to be quite robustly generated. Wings of enhanced electron density are observed in some of the simulations, also associated with drift-energization. In the simulations with a floating-potential obstacle, the specific potential structure behind that obstacle allows fast electrons to cross the wake, giving rise to a more traditional shadowing-driven two-stream instability. In conclusion, fluctuations associated with such instability are observed in the simulations, but this instability-mechanism is expected to be more sensitive to the plasma parameters than that associated with the slope-reversal.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1]
  1. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1469378
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1223158
Grant/Contract Number:  
SC0010491
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 22; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Haakonsen, Christian Bernt, and Hutchinson, Ian H. The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4932006.
Haakonsen, Christian Bernt, & Hutchinson, Ian H. The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4932006.
Haakonsen, Christian Bernt, and Hutchinson, Ian H. Thu . "The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4932006. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469378.
@article{osti_1469378,
title = {The electron forewake: Shadowing and drift-energization as flowing magnetized plasma encounters an obstacle},
author = {Haakonsen, Christian Bernt and Hutchinson, Ian H.},
abstractNote = {Flow of magnetized plasma past an obstacle creates a traditional wake, but also a forewake region arising from shadowing of electrons. The electron forewakes resulting from supersonic flows past insulating and floating-potential obstacles are explored with 2D electrostatic particle-in-cell simula-tions, using a physical ion to electron mass ratio. Drift-energization is discovered to give rise to modifications to the electron velocity-distribution, including a slope-reversal, providing a novel drive of forewake instability. The slope-reversal is present at certain locations in all the simula-tions, and appears to be quite robustly generated. Wings of enhanced electron density are observed in some of the simulations, also associated with drift-energization. In the simulations with a floating-potential obstacle, the specific potential structure behind that obstacle allows fast electrons to cross the wake, giving rise to a more traditional shadowing-driven two-stream instability. In conclusion, fluctuations associated with such instability are observed in the simulations, but this instability-mechanism is expected to be more sensitive to the plasma parameters than that associated with the slope-reversal.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4932006},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 10,
volume = 22,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1 work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Structure of the lunar wake: Two-dimensional global hybrid simulations
journal, January 2005


Electron velocity distribution instability in magnetized plasma wakes and artificial electron mass: ELECTRON INSTABILITY IN PLASMA WAKES
journal, March 2012

  • Hutchinson, I. H.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A3
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017119

New views of the lunar plasma environment
journal, November 2011


Upstream ULF waves and energetic electrons associated with the lunar wake: Detection of precursor activity
journal, May 1996

  • Farrell, W. M.; Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Owen, C. J.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 23, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1029/96GL01355

Electron collection by a negatively charged sphere in a collisionless magnetoplasma
journal, June 2007

  • Patacchini, L.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Lapenta, G.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 14, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2741249

A 1D fluid model for the measurement of perpendicular flow in strongly magnetized plasmas
journal, January 1999

  • Goubergen, H. Van; Weynants, R. R.; Jachmich, S.
  • Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Vol. 41, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1088/0741-3335/41/6/101

Oblique ion collection in the drift approximation: How magnetized Mach probes really work
journal, December 2008


The energization of plasma in the magnetosphere: Hydromagnetic and particle-drift approaches
journal, January 1963


A simple simulation of a plasma void: Applications to Wind observations of the lunar wake
journal, October 1998

  • Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Steinberg, J. T.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 103, Issue A10
  • DOI: 10.1029/97JA03717

Hybrid simulation of the shock wave trailing the Moon: SIMULATION OF SHOCK TRAILING THE MOON
journal, August 2012

  • Israelevich, P.; Ofman, L.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A8
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017358

Global mapping of lunar crustal magnetic fields by Lunar Prospector
journal, April 2008


Energetic electrons of terrestrial origin upstream in the solar wind
journal, April 1968


Evidence of currents and unstable particle distributions in an extended region around the lunar plasma wake
journal, June 1997

  • Bale, S. D.; Owen, C. J.; Bougeret, J. -L.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1029/97GL01193

Thin sheets of energetic electrons upstream from the Earth’s bow shock
journal, May 1979

  • Anderson, K. A.; Lin, R. P.; Martel, F.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 6, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/GL006i005p00401

Loss of solar wind plasma neutrality and affect on surface potentials near the lunar terminator and shadowed polar regions
journal, January 2008

  • Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.
  • Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2007GL032653

Investigation of the reliability of a 1-D fluid model for Mach probe measurements
journal, March 2005


Shadowed particle distributions near the Moon
journal, September 1997

  • Bale, S. D.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 102, Issue A9
  • DOI: 10.1029/97JA01676

Ion Collection by Oblique Surfaces of an Object in a Transversely Flowing Strongly Magnetized Plasma
journal, July 2008


Non-linear plasma wake growth of electron holes
journal, March 2015

  • Hutchinson, I. H.; Haakonsen, C. B.; Zhou, C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4915526

Kinetic electron and ion instability of the lunar wake simulated at physical mass ratio
journal, March 2015

  • Haakonsen, Christian Bernt; Hutchinson, Ian H.; Zhou, Chuteng
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 22, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4915525

A 3D hybrid simulation study of the electromagnetic field distributions in the lunar wake
journal, December 2011


Acceleration of particles reflected at a shock front
journal, March 1969


Spherical probes at ion saturation in E × B fields
journal, February 2010


Kinetic solution to the Mach probe problem in transversely flowing strongly magnetized plasmas
journal, September 2009


Nonthermal electrons and high-frequency waves in the upstream solar wind, 2. Analysis and interpretation
journal, October 1971

  • Fredricks, R. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Frank, L. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 76, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA076i028p06691

Lunar precursor effects in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosphere: LUNAR PRECURSOR EFFECTS
journal, May 2012

  • Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Vol. 117, Issue A5
  • DOI: 10.1029/2011JA017289

Three-dimensional analytical model for the spatial variation of the foreshock electron distribution function: Systematics and comparisons with ISEE observations
journal, January 1990

  • Fitzenreiter, R. J.; Scudder, J. D.; Klimas, A. J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 95, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA095iA04p04155

Solar wind electron interaction with the dayside lunar surface and crustal magnetic fields: Evidence for precursor effects
journal, February 2012


A fluid theory of ion collection by probes in strong magnetic fields with plasma flow
journal, January 1987


Two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the lunar wake
journal, May 2002

  • Birch, Paul C.; Chapman, Sandra C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 9, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1467655

Shock Drift Acceleration of Electrons
journal, January 2001

  • Ball, Lewis; Melrose, D. B.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia, Vol. 18, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1071/AS01047

Energetic electrons of terrestrial origin behind the bow shock and upstream in the solar wind
journal, January 1969


Detailed structure and dynamics in particle-in-cell simulations of the lunar wake
journal, October 2001

  • Birch, Paul C.; Chapman, Sandra C.
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 10
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1398570

Transport and drift-driven plasma flow components in the Alcator C-Mod boundary plasma
journal, January 2013


Formation of the lunar wake in quasi-neutral hybrid model
journal, January 2005


Electrostatic noise at the plasma frequency beyond the Earth's bow shock
journal, January 1979

  • Filbert, Paul C.; Kellogg, Paul J.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 84, Issue A4
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA084iA04p01369

Electromagnetic full particle simulation of the electric field structure around the moon and the lunar wake
journal, June 2008

  • Kimura, Shinya; Nakagawa, Tomoko
  • Earth, Planets and Space, Vol. 60, Issue 6
  • DOI: 10.1186/BF03353122

Magneto-Hydrodynamic Shocks
journal, November 1950


Nonlinear collisionless plasma wakes of small particles
journal, March 2011


Nonthermal electrons and high-frequency waves in the upstream solar wind, 1. Observations
journal, August 1971

  • Scarf, F. L.; Fredricks, R. W.; Frank, L. A.
  • Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 76, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1029/JA076i022p05162

Spherical conducting probes in finite Debye length plasmas and E × B fields
journal, January 2011


Vlasov simulation of the interaction between the solar wind and a dielectric body
journal, January 2011

  • Umeda, Takayuki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Togano, Kentaro
  • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 18, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3551510

First lunar wake passage of ARTEMIS: Discrimination of wake effects and solar wind fluctuations by 3D hybrid simulations
journal, June 2011


A review of upstream and bow shock energetic-particle measurements
journal, November 1979


The interaction between the Moon and the solar wind
journal, February 2012