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Title: Standards and Protocols for Data Acquisition and Reporting for Studies of the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide

Abstract

Objective evaluation of the performance of electrocatalysts for CO 2 reduction has been complicated by a lack of standardized methods for measuring and reporting activity data. In this perspective, we advocate that standardizing these practices can aid in advancing research efforts toward the development of efficient and selective CO 2 reduction electrocatalysts. Using information taken from experimental studies, we identify variables that influence the measured activity of CO 2 reduction electrocatalysts and propose procedures to account for these variables in order to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of reported data. We recommend that catalysts be measured under conditions which do not introduce artifacts from impurities, from either the electrolyte or counter electrode, and advocate the acquisition of data measured in the absence of mass transport effects. Furthermore, measured rates of electrochemical reactions should be normalized to both the geometric electrode area as well as the electrochemically active surface area to facilitate the comparison of reported catalysts with those previously known. We demonstrate that, when these factors are accounted for, the CO 2 reduction activities of Ag and Cu measured in different laboratories exhibit little difference. Furthermore, adoption of the recommendations presented in this perspective would greatly facilitate the identification ofmore » superior catalysts for CO 2 reduction arising solely from changes in their composition and pretreatment.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  2. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  4. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22). Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division
OSTI Identifier:
1469215
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1477340
Grant/Contract Number:  
[AC02-76SF00515; AC02-05CH11231]
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Catalysis
Additional Journal Information:
[ Journal Volume: 8; Journal Issue: 7]; Journal ID: ISSN 2155-5435
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; catalyst benchmarking; CO2 reduction; electrocatalysis; experimental protocols; intrinsic activity metrics; mass transfer effects; surface area normalization; surface contamination

Citation Formats

Clark, Ezra L., Resasco, Joaquin, Landers, Alan, Lin, John, Chung, Linh -Thao, Walton, Amber, Hahn, Christopher, Jaramillo, Thomas F., and Bell, Alexis T. Standards and Protocols for Data Acquisition and Reporting for Studies of the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acscatal.8b01340.
Clark, Ezra L., Resasco, Joaquin, Landers, Alan, Lin, John, Chung, Linh -Thao, Walton, Amber, Hahn, Christopher, Jaramillo, Thomas F., & Bell, Alexis T. Standards and Protocols for Data Acquisition and Reporting for Studies of the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide. United States. doi:10.1021/acscatal.8b01340.
Clark, Ezra L., Resasco, Joaquin, Landers, Alan, Lin, John, Chung, Linh -Thao, Walton, Amber, Hahn, Christopher, Jaramillo, Thomas F., and Bell, Alexis T. Fri . "Standards and Protocols for Data Acquisition and Reporting for Studies of the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide". United States. doi:10.1021/acscatal.8b01340. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469215.
@article{osti_1469215,
title = {Standards and Protocols for Data Acquisition and Reporting for Studies of the Electrochemical Reduction of Carbon Dioxide},
author = {Clark, Ezra L. and Resasco, Joaquin and Landers, Alan and Lin, John and Chung, Linh -Thao and Walton, Amber and Hahn, Christopher and Jaramillo, Thomas F. and Bell, Alexis T.},
abstractNote = {Objective evaluation of the performance of electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction has been complicated by a lack of standardized methods for measuring and reporting activity data. In this perspective, we advocate that standardizing these practices can aid in advancing research efforts toward the development of efficient and selective CO2 reduction electrocatalysts. Using information taken from experimental studies, we identify variables that influence the measured activity of CO2 reduction electrocatalysts and propose procedures to account for these variables in order to improve the accuracy and reproducibility of reported data. We recommend that catalysts be measured under conditions which do not introduce artifacts from impurities, from either the electrolyte or counter electrode, and advocate the acquisition of data measured in the absence of mass transport effects. Furthermore, measured rates of electrochemical reactions should be normalized to both the geometric electrode area as well as the electrochemically active surface area to facilitate the comparison of reported catalysts with those previously known. We demonstrate that, when these factors are accounted for, the CO2 reduction activities of Ag and Cu measured in different laboratories exhibit little difference. Furthermore, adoption of the recommendations presented in this perspective would greatly facilitate the identification of superior catalysts for CO2 reduction arising solely from changes in their composition and pretreatment.},
doi = {10.1021/acscatal.8b01340},
journal = {ACS Catalysis},
number = [7],
volume = [8],
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {6}
}

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Works referencing / citing this record:

Structure‐Sensitivity and Electrolyte Effects in CO 2 Electroreduction: From Model Studies to Applications
journal, June 2019

  • Sebastián‐Pascual, Paula; Mezzavilla, Stefano; Stephens, Ifan E. L.
  • ChemCatChem, Vol. 11, Issue 16
  • DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201900552

Enhanced selectivity and activity for electrocatalytic reduction of CO 2 to CO on an anodized Zn/carbon/Ag electrode
journal, January 2019

  • Gao, Yugang; Li, Fengping; Zhou, Peng
  • Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol. 7, Issue 28
  • DOI: 10.1039/c9ta04529e

Current achievements and the future direction of electrochemical CO 2 reduction: A short review
journal, June 2019