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Title: Low-Vapor-Pressure Solvent Additives Function as Polymer Swelling Agents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics

Abstract

Here, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics based on blends of conjugated polymers and fullerenes require an optimized nanoscale morphology. Casting BHJ films using solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT), chloronapthalene (CN), or diphenyl ether (DPE) often helps achieve this proper morphology: adding just a few volume percent of additive to the casting solution can improve polymer/fullerene mixing or phase separation, so that solvent additives have become staples in producing high-efficiency BHJ solar cells. The mechanism by which these additives improve BHJ morphology, however, is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how these additives control polymer/fullerene mixing by taking advantage of sequential processing (SqP), in which the polymer is deposited first and then the fullerene is intercalated into the polymer underlayer in a second processing step using a quasi-orthogonal solvent. In this way, SqP isolates the role of the additives’ interactions with the polymer and the fullerene.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4];  [5];  [4]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  3. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  4. Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)
  5. Inha Univ., Incheon (South Korea)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1469065
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515; 1608957; 1510353
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physical Chemistry. C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 29; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; Solvent Additives; Swelling Agents; Polymer Swelling; 1,8-diiodooctane; Sequential-Processing

Citation Formats

Fontana, Matthew T., Kang, Hyeyeon, Yee, Patrick Y., Fan, Zongwu, Hawks, Steven A., Schelhas, Laura T., Subramaniyan, Selvam, Hwang, Ye -Jin, Jenekhe, Samson A., Tolbert, Sarah H., and Schwartz, Benjamin J. Low-Vapor-Pressure Solvent Additives Function as Polymer Swelling Agents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b04192.
Fontana, Matthew T., Kang, Hyeyeon, Yee, Patrick Y., Fan, Zongwu, Hawks, Steven A., Schelhas, Laura T., Subramaniyan, Selvam, Hwang, Ye -Jin, Jenekhe, Samson A., Tolbert, Sarah H., & Schwartz, Benjamin J. Low-Vapor-Pressure Solvent Additives Function as Polymer Swelling Agents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b04192.
Fontana, Matthew T., Kang, Hyeyeon, Yee, Patrick Y., Fan, Zongwu, Hawks, Steven A., Schelhas, Laura T., Subramaniyan, Selvam, Hwang, Ye -Jin, Jenekhe, Samson A., Tolbert, Sarah H., and Schwartz, Benjamin J. Mon . "Low-Vapor-Pressure Solvent Additives Function as Polymer Swelling Agents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b04192. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1469065.
@article{osti_1469065,
title = {Low-Vapor-Pressure Solvent Additives Function as Polymer Swelling Agents in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaics},
author = {Fontana, Matthew T. and Kang, Hyeyeon and Yee, Patrick Y. and Fan, Zongwu and Hawks, Steven A. and Schelhas, Laura T. and Subramaniyan, Selvam and Hwang, Ye -Jin and Jenekhe, Samson A. and Tolbert, Sarah H. and Schwartz, Benjamin J.},
abstractNote = {Here, bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photovoltaics based on blends of conjugated polymers and fullerenes require an optimized nanoscale morphology. Casting BHJ films using solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), 1,8-octanedithiol (ODT), chloronapthalene (CN), or diphenyl ether (DPE) often helps achieve this proper morphology: adding just a few volume percent of additive to the casting solution can improve polymer/fullerene mixing or phase separation, so that solvent additives have become staples in producing high-efficiency BHJ solar cells. The mechanism by which these additives improve BHJ morphology, however, is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how these additives control polymer/fullerene mixing by taking advantage of sequential processing (SqP), in which the polymer is deposited first and then the fullerene is intercalated into the polymer underlayer in a second processing step using a quasi-orthogonal solvent. In this way, SqP isolates the role of the additives’ interactions with the polymer and the fullerene.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b04192},
journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry. C},
number = 29,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {7}
}

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