skip to main content
DOE PAGES title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Silicon compatible Sn-based resistive switching memory

Abstract

Large banks of cheap, fast, non-volatile, energy efficient, scalable solid-state memories are an increasingly essential component for today's data intensive computing. Conductive-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) – which involves voltage driven formation and dissolution of Cu or Ag filaments in a Cu (or Ag) anode/dielectric (HfO 2 or Al 2O 3)/inert cathode device – possesses the necessary attributes to fit the requirements. Cu and Ag are, however, fast diffusers and known contaminants in silicon microelectronics. In this paper, employing a criterion for electrode metal selection applicable to cationic filamentary devices and using first principles calculations for estimating diffusion barriers in HfO 2, we identify tin (Sn) as a rational, silicon CMOS compatible replacement for Cu and Ag anodes in CBRAM devices. We then experimentally fabricate Sn based CBRAM devices and demonstrate very fast, steep-slope memory switching as well as threshold switching, comparable to Cu or Ag based devices. Furthermore, time evolution of the cationic filament formation along with the switching mechanism is discussed based on time domain measurements (I vs. t) carried out under constant voltage stress. Finally, the time to threshold is shown to be a function of both the voltage stress (V stress) as well as the initialmore » leakage current (I 0) through the device.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [4];  [1]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Inst. for Molecular Engineering
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Center for Nanoscale Materials
  3. New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States). Chemical Engineering and Materials Engineering Dept.
  4. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1461456
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1434172
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-06CH11357; 1640081
Resource Type:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nanoscale
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 2040-3364
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Sonde, Sushant, Chakrabarti, Bhaswar, Liu, Yuzi, Sasikumar, Kiran, Lin, Jianqiang, Stan, Liliana, Divan, Ralu, Ocola, Leonidas E., Rosenmann, Daniel, Choudhury, Pabitra, Ni, Kai, Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S., Datta, Suman, and Guha, Supratik. Silicon compatible Sn-based resistive switching memory. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1039/c8nr01540f.
Sonde, Sushant, Chakrabarti, Bhaswar, Liu, Yuzi, Sasikumar, Kiran, Lin, Jianqiang, Stan, Liliana, Divan, Ralu, Ocola, Leonidas E., Rosenmann, Daniel, Choudhury, Pabitra, Ni, Kai, Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S., Datta, Suman, & Guha, Supratik. Silicon compatible Sn-based resistive switching memory. United States. doi:10.1039/c8nr01540f.
Sonde, Sushant, Chakrabarti, Bhaswar, Liu, Yuzi, Sasikumar, Kiran, Lin, Jianqiang, Stan, Liliana, Divan, Ralu, Ocola, Leonidas E., Rosenmann, Daniel, Choudhury, Pabitra, Ni, Kai, Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S., Datta, Suman, and Guha, Supratik. Tue . "Silicon compatible Sn-based resistive switching memory". United States. doi:10.1039/c8nr01540f. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1461456.
@article{osti_1461456,
title = {Silicon compatible Sn-based resistive switching memory},
author = {Sonde, Sushant and Chakrabarti, Bhaswar and Liu, Yuzi and Sasikumar, Kiran and Lin, Jianqiang and Stan, Liliana and Divan, Ralu and Ocola, Leonidas E. and Rosenmann, Daniel and Choudhury, Pabitra and Ni, Kai and Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S. and Datta, Suman and Guha, Supratik},
abstractNote = {Large banks of cheap, fast, non-volatile, energy efficient, scalable solid-state memories are an increasingly essential component for today's data intensive computing. Conductive-bridge random access memory (CBRAM) – which involves voltage driven formation and dissolution of Cu or Ag filaments in a Cu (or Ag) anode/dielectric (HfO2 or Al2O3)/inert cathode device – possesses the necessary attributes to fit the requirements. Cu and Ag are, however, fast diffusers and known contaminants in silicon microelectronics. In this paper, employing a criterion for electrode metal selection applicable to cationic filamentary devices and using first principles calculations for estimating diffusion barriers in HfO2, we identify tin (Sn) as a rational, silicon CMOS compatible replacement for Cu and Ag anodes in CBRAM devices. We then experimentally fabricate Sn based CBRAM devices and demonstrate very fast, steep-slope memory switching as well as threshold switching, comparable to Cu or Ag based devices. Furthermore, time evolution of the cationic filament formation along with the switching mechanism is discussed based on time domain measurements (I vs. t) carried out under constant voltage stress. Finally, the time to threshold is shown to be a function of both the voltage stress (Vstress) as well as the initial leakage current (I0) through the device.},
doi = {10.1039/c8nr01540f},
journal = {Nanoscale},
number = 20,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 3 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

Tantalum as a diffusion barrier between copper and silicon: Failure mechanism and effect of nitrogen additions
journal, June 1992

  • Holloway, Karen; Fryer, Peter M.; Cabral, Cyril
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 71, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.350566

Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple
journal, October 1996

  • Perdew, John P.; Burke, Kieron; Ernzerhof, Matthias
  • Physical Review Letters, Vol. 77, Issue 18, p. 3865-3868
  • DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3865

The Effect of Silicon Oxide Based RRAM with Tin Doping
journal, January 2012

  • Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Ting-Chang
  • Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, Vol. 15, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1149/2.013203esl

Bistable switching in electroformed metal–insulator–metal devices
journal, July 1988


Direct Observation of Conversion Between Threshold Switching and Memory Switching Induced by Conductive Filament Morphology
journal, July 2014

  • Sun, Haitao; Liu, Qi; Li, Congfei
  • Advanced Functional Materials, Vol. 24, Issue 36
  • DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201401304

Nanoionics-based resistive switching memories
journal, November 2007

  • Waser, Rainer; Aono, Masakazu
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 6, Issue 11, p. 833-840
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat2023

Phase-change memory devices with stacked Ge-chalcogenide/Sn-chalcogenide layers
journal, January 2007


Bidirectional threshold switching characteristics in Ag/ZrO 2 /Pt electrochemical metallization cells
journal, August 2016

  • Du, Gang; Wang, Chao; Li, Hongxia
  • AIP Advances, Vol. 6, Issue 8
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4961709

Efficiency of ab-initio total energy calculations for metals and semiconductors using a plane-wave basis set
journal, July 1996


Nanometer-scale switches using copper sulfide
journal, May 2003

  • Sakamoto, T.; Sunamura, H.; Kawaura, H.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 82, Issue 18
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1572964

Bidirectional threshold switching in engineered multilayer (Cu 2 O/Ag:Cu 2 O/Cu 2 O) stack for cross-point selector application
journal, September 2015

  • Song, Jeonghwan; Prakash, Amit; Lee, Daeseok
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 107, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4931136

Diffusion of ion‐implanted Sn and Sb in heavily doped n ‐type silicon
journal, August 1988

  • Andersen, P. E.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Tidemand‐Petersson, P.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 53, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.99823

Voltage-Driven On–Off Transition and Tradeoff With Program and Erase Current in Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) Memory
journal, May 2009


Observation of conducting filament growth in nanoscale resistive memories
journal, January 2012

  • Yang, Yuchao; Gao, Peng; Gaba, Siddharth
  • Nature Communications, Vol. 3, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1737

Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
journal, October 1996


From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method
journal, January 1999


On the mechanisms of cation injection in conducting bridge memories: The case of HfO 2 in contact with noble metal anodes (Au, Cu, Ag)
journal, March 2016

  • Saadi, M.; Gonon, P.; Vallée, C.
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 119, Issue 11
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4943776

Optimization methods for finding minimum energy paths
journal, April 2008

  • Sheppard, Daniel; Terrell, Rye; Henkelman, Graeme
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 128, Issue 13
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2841941

Tin Doping of Silicon for Controlling Oxygen Precipitation and Radiation Hardness
journal, January 2001

  • Claeys, C.; Simoen, E.; Neimash, V. B.
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Vol. 148, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1149/1.1417558

Memory and Information Processing in Neuromorphic Systems
journal, August 2015


Defect states of amorphous Si probed by the diffusion and solubility of Cu
journal, September 1990

  • Polman, A.; Jacobson, D. C.; Coffa, S.
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 57, Issue 12
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.103493

Electronic transport in Ta2O5 resistive switch
journal, August 2007

  • Sakamoto, Toshitsugu; Lister, Kevin; Banno, Naoki
  • Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 91, Issue 9
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.2777170

Dielectric relaxation in solids
journal, January 1999


Excellent R off / R on ratio and short programming time in Cu/Al 2 O 3 -based conductive-bridging RAM under low-current (10 μA) operation : Cu/Al
journal, September 2015

  • Belmonte, Attilio; Fantini, Andrea; Redolfi, Augusto
  • physica status solidi (a), Vol. 213, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201532409

Simulation of multilevel switching in electrochemical metallization memory cells
journal, January 2012

  • Menzel, Stephan; Böttger, Ulrich; Waser, Rainer
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 111, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.3673239

Ab initiomolecular dynamics for liquid metals
journal, January 1993


Bio-Inspired Stochastic Computing Using Binary CBRAM Synapses
journal, July 2013

  • Suri, Manan; Querlioz, Damien; Bichler, Olivier
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 60, Issue 7
  • DOI: 10.1109/TED.2013.2263000

A climbing image nudged elastic band method for finding saddle points and minimum energy paths
journal, December 2000

  • Henkelman, Graeme; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Jónsson, Hannes
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 22, p. 9901-9904
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1329672

Improved tangent estimate in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths and saddle points
journal, December 2000

  • Henkelman, Graeme; Jónsson, Hannes
  • The Journal of Chemical Physics, Vol. 113, Issue 22
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.1323224

Engineering the switching dynamics of TiO x -based RRAM with Al doping
journal, July 2016

  • Trapatseli, Maria; Khiat, Ali; Cortese, Simone
  • Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 120, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1063/1.4958672

Memristive devices for computing
journal, January 2013

  • Yang, J. Joshua; Strukov, Dmitri B.; Stewart, Duncan R.
  • Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 8, Issue 1, p. 13-24
  • DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2012.240

Study of Multilevel Programming in Programmable Metallization Cell (PMC) Memory
journal, May 2009

  • Russo, Ugo; Kamalanathan, Deepak; Ielmini, Daniele
  • IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 56, Issue 5
  • DOI: 10.1109/TED.2009.2016019

Determination of diffusion mechanisms in amorphous silicon
journal, April 1992


Resistive switching memories based on metal oxides: mechanisms, reliability and scaling
journal, May 2016