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Title: Tracking Internal Temperature and Structural Dynamics during Nail Penetration of Lithium-Ion Cells

Mechanical abuse of lithium-ion batteries is widely used during testing to induce thermal runaway, characterize associated risks, and expose cell and module vulnerabilities. But, the repeatability of puncture or 'nail penetration' tests is a key issue as there is often a high degree of variability in the resulting thermal runaway process. Here, the failure mechanisms of 18650 cells punctured at different locations and orientations are characterized with respect to their internal structural degradation, and both their internal and surface temperature, all of which are monitored in real time. The initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is visualized via high-speed synchrotron X-ray radiography at 2000 frames per second, and the surface and internal temperatures are recorded via infrared imaging and a thermocouple embedded in the tip of the penetrating nail, respectively. The influence of the nail, as well as how and where it penetrates the cell, on the initiation and propagation of thermal runaway is described and the suitability of this test method for representing in-field failures is discussed.
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2] ;  [2]
  1. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Transportation and Hydrogen Systems Center
  2. Univ. College London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering
  3. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRP), Grenoble (France)
  4. National Physical Lab., Middlesex (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
Report Number(s):
Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651; TRN: US1800370
Grant/Contract Number:
Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 164; Journal Issue: 13; Journal ID: ISSN 0013-4651
The Electrochemical Society
Research Org:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org:
British Research Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)
Country of Publication:
United States
25 ENERGY STORAGE; lithium ion batteries; nail penetration; x-ray imaging
OSTI Identifier: